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Jubilarna memorijalna medalja 1870. hodočasnika

Pažljivo izrađena medalja zrači naslijeđem Otaca hodočasnika.

Hodočasnici su bili prvi doseljenici kolonije Plymouth u Massachusettsu. Oni su imali puritansko kalvinističko uvjerenje, tvrdeći da bi trebali ostati odvojeni od engleske državne crkve. Prvo su pobjegli u Nizozemsku prije nego što su skočili u vjeru kako bi osnovali novu koloniju u Americi.

Teškoće s kojima se kolonija suočila bile su ogromne, a do kraja prve zime, više od polovice kolonije je stradalo, preostalo je samo 47. No, kolonija je preživjela, a upravo je njihov Mayflower Compact donio prvi oblik predstavničke vlade uspostavljen u Americi. Mayflower Compact je takođe služio kao temelj za američki ustav. Štaviše, njihova pobožna vjera utemeljena u Svetom pismu postavila je temelj utjecaju kršćanstva u Americi. Njihove obaveze, hrabrost i izuzetna ljubav nadahnjivale bi generacije koje dolaze.

Prvi Dan zahvalnosti u Plymouthu (1914), koju je predstavila umjetnica Jennie Augusta Brownscombe iz New Yorka

Dana 21. decembra 1870. godine u Plymouthu, Massachusetts, u crkvi Prve župe održano je slavlje Hodočasničkog društva u čast prvog iskrcavanja hodočasnika. Ovo slavlje obilježilo je taj kultni trenutak 250 godina ranije, kada su hodočasnici stigli na Mayflower i započeli život u "Novom svijetu". Društvo hodočasnika prvi je put osnovano 1819. godine, a odgovorno je za Pilgrim Hall, izgrađenu 1824. Dvorana je najstariji američki javni muzej koji neprestano radi i dom je mnogim povijesnim artefaktima, uključujući Bibliju Williama Bradforda i mač Mylesa Standisha.

Hodočasnička dvorana čuva povijest, zapise i artefakte otaca hodočasnika,
i dokumentira dramatičnu priču o njihovom slijetanju i opasnoj prvoj zimi.

Medalja koja ističe slavljeničku godinu ostaje jedan od najboljih primjera izrade bilo koje prigodne medalje koja je ikada proizvedena. Medalje su podijeljene i podijeljene onima koji su prisustvovali glavnom slavlju koje je održano u crkvi Prve parohije u Plymouthu. Dizajnirala su ga i vjerovatno ugravirala dva člana Društva hodočasnika, Joseph E. Ellis i Asa C. Warren. Njihova imena se nalaze na aversu zemlje. Medalju su osvojili Scovill Manufacturing Co, Waterbury, CT, a komadi su predstavljeni zvaničnicima i posebnim gostima na proslavi.

Ovaj otisak prikazuje avers medalje.
Ljubaznošću Kongregacijske biblioteke i arhive.
Kliknite na slike za povećanje

Obrnuto obilježje ono čemu su hodočasnici (ili puritanci) bili najviše posvećeni - otvorena Biblija. Ptica - vjerovatno orao koji predstavlja Ameriku - nalazi se iznad, sa raširenim krilima u letu (neki su sugerisali da bi to mogao biti golub). Iznad njih su riječi "Čija vjera slijedi". Izuzetno složen prizor na aversu klasičan je prikaz slijetanja hodočasnika koji podiže molitvu zahvale za sigurno putovanje. Za dizajn je odabran izrazito biblijski broj od 12 figura - šest klečećih i šest stojećih - a grupirani su oko Williama Bradforda, čije su ruke sklopljene u molitvi.

Medalje su navedene u referenci takozvanog dolara izrađene od posrebrenog bakra (HK-13), bakra (HK-14) i mjedi (HK-15). Međutim, vjerojatno nije napravljen primjer mjedi, jer su testovi NGC-a otkrili da je to pozlaćeni bakar. Oni su označeni kao HK-15A. Nekoliko medalja izrađeno je od punog srebra (HK-13A), a NGC je certificirao i jedan komad bijelog metala (kositar) debljine 5 mm (HK-15B). Od ovih, sorta posrebrenog bakra je najčešća, a one često pokazuju tamno i/ili šareno toniranje.

Svaki od unosa u referenci Hiblera i Kappena ima oznake R-5 (poznato je 75-200 komada), iako je posrebrena sorta vjerojatno češća od ove. Popis NGC -a bilježi oko 90 primjeraka u posrebrenom bakru. Otprilike polovica tog broja u pozlaćenom bakru je ocijenjena, dok je manje od 10 primjeraka u bakru, a samo tri u srebru certificirano. Niski necirkulirani primjer HK-13 mogao bi se prodati ispod 300 USD, ali druge vrste metala lako mogu donijeti više. Primjer HK-14 nedavno je ocijenjen NGC MS 65 RB Prooflike, a prodan je u puno s drugom (manje vrijednom) medaljom za 4.560 USD na prodaji Heritage Auctions u decembru 2018. godine.

HK-14: Jedan od najboljih poznatih primjera bakra prodan je u prosincu prošle godine od strane Heritage Auctions.
Stepen je NGC MS 65 RB PL.
Kliknite na slike za povećanje

Svrha medalje je uglavnom bila pomoć u prikupljanju sredstava za izgradnju kongregacionalističkih crkava i evanđeosku pomoć. Do 1870. godine, vođe vjeroispovijesti postavili su cilj od 3 miliona dolara koji će se prikupiti u jubilarnoj godini - svi će ići na izgradnju novih crkava i škola, posebno na jugu i zapadu, kao i velike Kongregacijske kuće i biblioteke u Bostonu. Nažalost, nisu uspjeli prodati mnogo medalja, pa čak i nekoliko mjeseci nakon kampanje samo je jedna na svakih 20 crkava kupila medalju za podjelu. Bilteni kongregacionara žalili su se da su, dok su druge protestantske konfesije prikupljale milione, „sinovi hodočasnika iz Plymoutha“ doprinijeli „oskudnoj i sramnoj bijedi“.

Glavna proslava održana je 21. decembra, a prisustvovale su joj mnoge istaknute ličnosti, iako su drugi ugledni pojedinci, poput predsjednika Granta, morali odbiti njihove pozive. Postupak događaja, uključujući pisma onih koji su primili pozivnice, vrlo su detaljno zabilježeni i objavljeni od strane službenika i povjerenika Društva hodočasnika.

Glavno izlaganje održao je Robert C. Winthrop, koji nije bio kongregacionista, već episkop. Robert je, međutim, bio potomak Johna Winthropa, jednog od osnivača kolonije Massachusetts Bay. Oduševljavao je veličanstvenim utjecajem prvih kolonija puritanaca na Novi svijet i buduće generacije širom svijeta.

Ne može postojati pravo američko srce, mislim, koje se nije nateklo od gorljivije zahvalnosti Bogu i dubljeg poštovanja prema ocima hodočasnicima, jer se jutrošnje sunce izdiglo iznad vrhova brda, za skoro ljetnu slavu, i još jednom, s takvim transcendentnim sjajem, uveo naš posvećeni Jubilej. Kad razmišljamo o utjecaju koji je tekao, i još uvijek teče, u uvijek svježim i neprestanim potocima, iz tamošnje Stene, koju je prije dva stoljeća i pol prvi put udario podnožje civiliziranog, kršćanskog čovjeka, kad razmislimo koliko je snažno taj uticaj prevladao. zaista bismo trebali biti mrtvi na svaku emociju zahvalnosti Bogu ili čovjeku, da ovu godišnjicu ne pozdravimo kao jednu od najvećih u kalendaru vjekova.

Dok su gosti stizali vozovima, na ulicama je svirao bend, a gosti su bili pozvani u različite firme i trgovine. Sam događaj je započeo crkvenom službom u 12:15, nakon čega je uslijedio veliki govor Winthropa. Nakon toga je na novoj željezničkoj stanici poslužena veličanstvena večera za oko 900 gostiju, tokom koje su održani i drugi govori i zdravice. Obrnuta medalja jubileja hodočasnika bila je prikladno dizajnirana, kako je Winthrop izjavio u svojim završnim riječima,

Nemojmo se oglušiti o upozorenja Otaca. Ne budimo bezosjećajni prema časovima. Odlučimo da nas nikakav nacionalni veličanstveni rast, nikakva građanska sloboda, društveni prosperitet ili individualni uspjeh nikada neće učiniti nesvjesnim onih velikih načela pobožnosti i vrlina koje su hodočasnici usađivali i primjerivali. Dopustimo da odlučimo da što god drugi narod bio, ili neće, on će i dalje i uvijek biti kršćanska nacija, u punoj sveobuhvatnosti i istinskom značaju tog veličanstvenog izraza - njegov primjer na strani mira i pravde, orao, ne samo sa štitom Unije i slobode ukrašenim na grudima, već, poput onog mnogih lektira drevne katedrale ili moderne crkve, u inostranstvu ili kod kuće, koji ponosno nosi otvorenu Bibliju na raširenim krilima!

Događaj je završen velikim balom u večernjim satima, koji je održan u Davis Hallu, a na kojem je bilo 400 dama i gospode. U uređenoj dvorani vladala je zadivljujuća vibracija, što nikada nije doživjelo u tako konzervativnom gradu kao što je Plymouth. Na jednom kraju hodnika, velikim slovima, nadvišen nad pozornicom, bio je datum 1620, a straga 1870, koji su bili izloženi mlazovima gasa. Muzika, koju je svirao Gilmore's Band, nastavila se sve dok "bal nije izveden do briljantnog zaključka oko četiri sata ujutro".

HK-15A: Ovaj primjer pozlaćenog bakra dostavljen NGC-u ocijenjen je MS 66 PL. Moguće je da nema pravog mesinga
postoje primjerci (HK-15), koji su zapravo zbunjeni sa primjercima pozlaćenosti u referenci takozvanog dolara.
Kliknite na slike za povećanje

Vraćajući se u 1630. godinu, John Winthrop, upravitelj kolonije Massachusetts Bay Colony (osnovane 10 godina kasnije), izjavio je: "Bit ćemo kao grad na brdu, oči svih ljudi uperene su u nas." Hodočasnici su na svijet mogli gledati kao na primjer pravednog života. Oni su bili oni koji su zapalili svjetionik u Americi koji će zasijati u cijeloj Evropi kao "uzor kršćanskog milosrđa". Oni su bili temelj onoga što je Ameriku zaista učinilo velikom za početak. Zato je jubilej tako strastveno proslavljen 1870. godine i zašto je pažljivo izrađena medalja proizvedena te godine jedan od najboljih trofeja u numizmatici.


Sadržaj

U ranoj crkvi Edit

Upotreba amajlija i talismana u poganskoj antici bila je široko rasprostranjena. Riječ amuletum sam se javlja u Pliniju, a mnogi spomenici pokazuju kako su sve klase nosile predmete ove vrste oko vrata. Grgur Veliki poslao je kraljici Theodelindi od Langobarda dvojicu phylacteria koja sadrži relikviju Istinskog križa i rečenicu iz Jevanđelja, koju je njen sin Adulovald trebao nositi oko vrata. Međutim, praksa nošenja encolpia (mali prsni križevi) podložili su se zloupotrebama kada su se magijske formule počele spajati s kršćanskim simbolima, što je redovito bila praksa gnostika. Neki očevi iz četvrtog i kasnijih stoljeća protestirali su protiv gnostičkih filakterija koje su nosili kršćani. [1] Predmet nalik novčiću pronađen u katakombama s jedne strane prikazuje prikaz mučeništva sveca, vjerovatno svetog Lovre, koji se peče na rešetki u prisustvu rimskog magistrata. Kršćanski karakter scene pokazuje chi-rho božić, alfa i omega, te mučenička kruna. Na reversu je prikazan grob sv. Lovre, dok lik stoji u pijetetu prije nego što drži svijeću. [2]

Druga medalja, koja na aversu nosi ime Gaudentianus, a na naličju Urbicus, prikazuje naizgled na jednom licu Abrahamovu žrtvu, a na drugom očigledno svetište ili oltar, iznad kojega gore tri svijeće, prema kojoj visoki lik nosi kalež u jednoj ruci vodi malo dijete. Čini se da prizor predstavlja posvećenje djeteta djetetu Bogu kao žrtvu od njegova oca pred svetištem nekog mučenika, običaj za koji postoji dosta ranih dokaza. Druge medalje su mnogo jednostavnije i nose samo Chi Rho s imenom ili možda križem. Drugi koji su impresionirani složenijim uređajima mogu se datirati samo s poteškoćama, ili, kao u slučaju posebno nekih predstava o obožavanju maga, za koje se čini da pokazuju jake tragove bizantskog utjecaja, pripadaju mnogo kasnijem razdoblju. [2]

Neke od medalja ili medaljona za koje se smatra da su kršćanski utisnuti su samo s jedne strane, a ove klase je brončani medaljon vrlo umjetničke izvedbe otkriven na groblju Domitilla i sada sačuvan u Vatikanskoj biblioteci. Na njoj su dva portretna tipa glava apostola SS. Petra i Pavla, a Giovanni Battista de Rossi ga je pripisao drugom stoljeću. Poznati su i drugi medaljoni sa (suočenim) glavama dvojice apostola. Nije jasno koliko se upotreba takvih medalja pobožnosti proširila u ranoj Crkvi. [2]

Srednjovjekovne medalje Uredi

Iako je vjerojatno da tradicije nastale oko ovih predmeta, koji su bili jednako poznati u Rimu i u Carigradu, nikada nisu potpuno zamrli, ipak postoji malo dokaza o upotrebi medalja u srednjem vijeku. Nema tragova takvih preživjelih predmeta koji su značajni ni po umjetničkoj vještini ni po vrijednosti metala. U životu svete Genevieve, prepričava se da je sveti German iz Auxerrea, zaustavivši se u Nanterreu na putu za Veliku Britaniju, objesio joj oko vrata perforirani brončani novac označen znakom križa, kako bi je podsjetio da ima posvetila svoje nevinost Bogu. [3] Čini se da jezik sugerira da je običnom novčiću dosadno u tu svrhu. Mnogi novčići kasnog carstva bili su žigosani božićnim likom ili likom Spasitelja, a obična valuta se često mogla koristiti u slične pobožne svrhe.

Tijekom dvanaestog stoljeća, ako ne i ranije, nastala je vrlo opća praksa na dobro poznatim hodočasničkim mjestima, lijevanja žetona u olovo, a ponekad i vjerovatno u druge metale, što je hodočasniku služilo kao suvenir i poticaj za odanost i istovremeno potvrdio činjenicu da je uredno stigao na odredište. Ovo signacula (enseignes) na engleskom jeziku poznati kao "hodočasnički znakovi" [4] često su poprimali metalni oblik i nosili su se na vidljiv način na šeširu ili grudima. Giraldus Cambrensis, koji se odnosi na putovanje u Canterbury oko 1180. godine, deset godina nakon mučeničke smrti svetog Thomasa Becketa, opisuje sebe i svoje pratioce koji se vraćaju u London sa žetonima svetog Tome obješenim oko vrata. Spominju se i u alegorijskoj pjesmi Orač Pirs. Privilegija lijevanja i prodaje ovih hodočasničkih znakova bila je vrlo vrijedna i postala je redovan izvor prihoda u većini vjerskih odmarališta.

Običaj je čvrsto uspostavljen u samom Rimu, a papa Inocent III, pismom od 18. januara 1200., kanonima Svetog Petra daje monopol lijevanja i prodaje onih "olovnih ili kositrenih znakova impresioniranih likom apostola" Petra i Pavla s kojima oni koji posjećuju njihove pragove [limina] se ukrašavaju radi povećanja vlastite predanosti i u svjedočanstvu o putu koji su postigli ". Papin jezik implicira da je taj običaj postojao neko vrijeme. Po obliku i modi ovi hodočasnički znakovi su različiti. Otprilike od dvanaestog stoljeća lijevanje ovih pobožnih predmeta nastavilo se do kraja srednjeg vijeka, pa čak i kasnije, ali u šesnaestom ili sedamnaestom stoljeću počele su se zamjenjivati ​​medaljama koje se pravilno zovu u bronci ili u srebru, često s mnogo većim pretenzijama na umjetničko izvođenje .

Postojao je i običaj lijevanja žetona sličnih kovanicama u vezi s blagdanom budala, proslavom dječaka biskupa obično na blagdan Svetih nevinih. Postojeći primjerci uglavnom pripadaju šesnaestom stoljeću, ali praksa mora biti mnogo starija. Iako se često uvodi burleskni element, legende i uređaji prikazani u takvim djelima gotovo su svi religiozni.

Pažnju zaslužuju velika zbirka jetona i méreaux -a koji su se, počevši od trinaestog stoljeća, nastavili proizvoditi kroz cijeli srednji vijek i na nekim mjestima trajali sve do Francuske revolucije. Proizvedene su kao brojači za računanje na tabli za brojanje, obloženoj tabli sličnoj abakusu. Ubrzo je postala moda za svaku istaknutu ličnost, posebno za one koji su imali bilo kakve veze s financijama, da imaju posebne jetone s vlastitom napravom, a na neke od tih značajnih umjetničkih vještina su se uhitili. Donekle slični modernim, netiražnim prigodnim kovanicama, ti su komadi služili u različite svrhe, a često su se u srednjem vijeku koristili kao zamjena za novac u igrama, slično modernim kasino ili poker žetonima. Na gotovo polovici srednjovjekovnih jetona koji su preživjeli nalaze se pobožni moti i dizajni. Često su se ti jetoni poklanjali ili "komada de plaisir" posebno osobama velikog ugleda, pa su u takvim prilikama često bile posebno udarane u zlato ili srebro.

Jedna posebna i vrlo česta upotreba jetona bila je da služi kao vaučeri za posjećivanje ureda katedrale i raznih sastanaka. U ovom slučaju često su sa sobom nosili naslov na određene obroke ili novčane uplate, a iznos je ponekad bio utisnut na komadu. Tako korišteni tokeni bili su poznati kao jetons de présence ili méreaux, i oni su uveliko korišteni, posebno nešto kasnije, kako bi se osiguralo odgovarajuće prisustvo kanonika u katedralnim uredima itd. Međutim, u mnogim slučajevima pobožna naprava koju su nosili bila je toliko ili čak više razmatrana kao upotreba koje su stavljene i čini se da su izvršile funkciju analognu kasnijim škapularima i svetim kartama. Jedan poznati primjer je "méreau d'estaing"na kojem je bilo utisnuto Isusovo ime, a koji su distribuirani po Parizu oko 1429. Ovi jetoni sa žigom vjerojatno su povezani s djelom svete Bernardine Sijenske, koja je aktivno promicala odanost Svetom imenu.

Konačno, u svrhu velikih kraljevskih krunidbi ili za novac Maundy, često su se udarali komadići koje bi se radije trebalo smatrati medaljama nego stvarnim novcem.

Među oblicima blagoslova u srednjem vijeku nije pronađen nijedan primjer blagoslova za kovanice.

Renaissance Edit

Pravilno nazvane medalje, izlivene sa komemorativnom svrhom, počele su, iako postoji samo nekoliko rijetkih primjeraka, u posljednjim godinama četrnaestog stoljeća. Jedna od prvih zasigurno poznatih medalja odlikovana je za Francesca Carrara (Novello) prilikom zauzimanja Padove 1390. godine. No, praktički, modu za ovaj oblik umjetnosti stvorio je Pisanello (oko 1380–1451). značajan osvajač prigodnih portreta u prvoj polovici 15. stoljeća i koji može tvrditi da je nastao iz ovog žanra. [5] Iako nisu religiozni u namjeri, mnogi od njih posjeduju snažnu vjersku boju. Prekrasna naličje Pisanellove medalje Malatesta Novello prikazuje ratnika odjevenog poštom kako silazi s konja i kleči pred raspelom.

Ali prošlo je mnogo prije nego što je ova nova umjetnost toliko utjecala na njen utjecaj da je donijela metalne predstave svetaca i svetišta, misterija i čuda, zajedno s amblemima i uređajima svih vrsta u jeftinoj formi u ruke ljudi. Postepena zamjena umjetničkih brončanih i srebrnih medalja za grube hodočasničke znakove u takvim svetištima kao što su Loreto ili Sveti Petar, učinila je mnogo da pomogne općem prihvaćanju medalja kao predmeta pobožnosti. Opet, papinske jubilarne medalje koje su zasigurno počele već 1475. godine i koje su zbog prirode slučaja prenesene u sve dijelove svijeta morale su pomoći da se ideja učini poznatom.

Negdje tokom šesnaestog stoljeća praksa je usvojena, vjerovatno nakon upotrebe koja je ranije bila u modi u slučaju Agnus Dei (diskovi od voska impresionirani likom jagnjeta i koje je Papa blagoslovio u određeno doba godine, koji se mogao nositi ovješen oko vrata) [6] davanja papinskog blagoslova medaljama, pa čak i njihovog obogaćivanja oprostima. Tokom pobune Les Gueuxa u Flandriji 1566. godine, jedna ili neke od ovih ranih Geuzen medalja skovane su s političkom porukom i frakcija Gueux ih je koristila kao značku. Španjolci su na to odgovorili udarajući medalju sa Spasiteljevom glavom, a naličje je slika Gospe od Hala Pija V dala oprost onima koji su ovu medalju nosili u šeširima.

Iz toga se kaže da se običaj blagoslova i oprosta odličja brzo proširio. Sigurno je da je Sixtus V pridodao oproste nekim drevnim kovanicama otkrivenim u temeljima zgrada u Scala Santa, koje je učinio bogato postavljenim i poslao osobama s ugledom. Dodatno ohrabreni jubilarnom modom i drugim papskim medaljama, upotreba ovih predmeta za pobožnost proširila se na sve dijelove svijeta. Čini se da su Austrija i Boherma preuzele vodstvo u uvođenju mode u srednju Europu, a neki izuzetno fini primjerci proizvedeni su po nadahnuću talijanskih umjetnika koje je car Maksimilijan pozvao na svoj dvor. Neke od vjerskih medalja koje su Antonio Abondio i njegovi učenici odlikovali u Beču su najvišeg reda izvrsnosti. No, tijekom šesnaestog i sedamnaestog stoljeća gotovo svaki značajan grad u katoličkoj Evropi došao je do svojih majstora koji su pratili industriju.

Osim uobičajenog broja pobožnih medalja, proizvedeni su brojni različiti vjerski komadi povezani s mjestima, bratstvima, vjerskim redovima, svecima, misterijama, čudima, pobožnostima, itd. I drugim poznatim vrstama.

Medalje od kuge Edit

Pogođene i blagoslovljene kao zaštita od kuge, ove medalje se razlikuju. Predmeti uključuju Svetog Sebastijana [7] i Svetog Roka, različita svetišta Blažene Djevice, a često i pogled na neki određeni grad. Oko njih su obično ispisana slova analogna onima koja su prikazana na medalji Svetog Benedikta, na primjer +. z +. D. I. A. Ove i druge serije pisama predstavljaju "Crux Christi salva, nos" "Zelus domus Dei libera me" "Crux Christi vincit et regnat per lignum crucis libera me Domine ab, hac peste Deus meus expelle pestem et libera me, itd. [8]

Medalje u spomen na čuda euharistije Edit

Bio je veliki broj ovih udaraca za jubileje, stogodišnjice itd., Na različitim mjestima gdje se vjerovalo da su se ta čuda dogodila, često ukrašena vrlo neobičnim napravama. Postoji jedan, na primjer, spomen na čudo u Seefeldu, na kojem je prikazana priča o plemiću koji je zahtijevao da primi veliko domaćinstvo na pričest poput svećeničkog. Svećenik se pridržava, ali kao kazna za plemićku pretpostavku zemlja se otvara i guta ga.

Privatne medalje Edit

Oni čine vrlo veliku klasu, ali su posebni primjerci često izuzetno oskudni, jer su udarani u spomen na događaje u životu pojedinaca, a dijeljeni su samo prijateljima. Krštenja, brakovi, prve pričesti i smrti bili su glavni povodi za dobijanje ovih privatnih medalja. Krsne ili sponzorske medalje (pathen medaillen) su posebno zanimljive i često sadrže precizne detalje o satu rođenja iz kojeg bi se mogao izračunati djetetov horoskop.

Komemorativne medalje posebnih legendi Edit

Od ove klase, poznati križ svetog Ulriha Augsburškog može poslužiti kao uzorak. Pretpostavlja se da je anđeo donio anđeo svetom Ulrihu kako bi ga mogao nositi u rukama u velikoj bitci protiv Mađara, 955. godine poslije Krista. Freiseneggerova monografija "Die Ulrichs-kreuze" (Augsburg, 1895) nabraja 180 vrsta ovog predmeta pobožnosti ponekad u križu, ponekad u obliku medalje, često povezanog s medaljom sv. Benedikta.

Iako nisu namjenski posvećeni, vrlo veliki broj papinskih medalja obilježava različite crkvene događaje, često otvaranje i zatvaranje Svetih vrata u godinama jubileja. Serija započinje pontifikatom Martina V 1417. godine i nastavlja se do danas. Neki tipovi koji tvrde da obilježavaju djela ranijih papa, npr. jubilej Bonifacija VIII, rekonstrukcije su ili izmišljotine kasnijeg datuma. [9] [10]

Gotovo sve najznačajnije radnje svakog pontifikata u posljednjih petsto godina obilježene su medaljama na ovaj način, a osmislili su ih i neki od najpoznatijih umjetnika poput Benvenuta Cellinija, Carsdossa i drugih. Porodica Hamerana, papskih osvajača medalja od 1605. do oko 1807. godine, snabdjela je većinu te velike serije i proslavljena je svojim radom. [11]

Druge vrste medalja osvojila su važna vjerska udruženja, na primjer Malteški vitezovi, određena opatija u spomen na svoje opate ili u vezi s određenim viteškim redovima. O nekim od ovih serija medalja napisane su korisne monografije, kao što je na primjer rad kanonika H. C. Schembrija, na temu "Kovanice i medalje malteških vitezova" (London, 1908.).

Čini se da su pape blagoslovile Agnus Deis [12] s više ili manje svečanosti od ranog razdoblja. U šesnaestom stoljeću ova je praksa bila jako razvijena. Običaj je nastao tako što je pontifikat blagoslovio krunice, "zrnaste" medalje, obogatio ih oprostima i poslao ih, preko svojih privilegiranih misionara ili izaslanika, na distribuciju katolicima u Engleskoj. U tim je prilikama često sastavljen papir s uputama koji je točno definirao prirodu ovih oprosta i uvjete pod kojima se oni mogu steći. Apostolski oprosti koji su dodijelili medalje, krunice i slične predmete od strane svih svećenika koji su za to ovlašteni, analogni su ovim. Daju se jednostavnim znakom križa, ali za određene druge predmete, npr. Benedikta, potrebno je više posebnih fakulteta, a predviđen je i razrađen oblik blagoslova. 1911. Pio X je odobrio upotrebu blagoslovljene medalje koja će se nositi umjesto smeđih i drugih lopatica.

Zbirka Stevea Cribba od preko 10.000 posvećenih medalja sada se nalazi u zbirkama Britanskog muzeja i Univerzitetskog muzeja u Bergenu.


Za one koji poznaju hodočašće u Camino de Santiago, školjka je dobro došla. To je simbol koji vodi hodočasnike na putu prema njihovom konačnom odredištu, a često ga nose i oni koji krenu na takvo putovanje.

Ljuska školjke može se vidjeti i u srednjovjekovnim predstavama sv. Jakova Velikog, kao i u osnovnim prikazima hodočasnika. To je drevni simbol, koji je postao blisko povezan s Caminom i kršćanskim hodočašćem općenito.

Žašto je to? Kako je ljuska školjke dobila takvu asocijaciju?

Dio je to bilo zbog određenih legendi vezanih za dolazak tijela svetog Jakova u Španiju. Jedna priča pripovijeda da je nakon što je Jakov ubijen u Jeruzalemu 44. godine, njegovo tijelo odneseno u Španiju, a kada je brod stigao do obale, konj se uplašio i pao u vodu. Priča dalje govori kako su i konj i jahač čudesno spašeni i izašli iz vode prekrivene školjkama.

Na praktičnijem nivou školjke školjke prirodno se nalaze na obali Galicije u blizini groba sv. Jakova. Za hodočasnike u srednjem vijeku putovanje se obično obavljalo radi ispunjenja pokore koju je dao svećenik. Kako bi se provjerilo je li hodočasnik zaista stigao do krajnjeg odredišta, bio je potreban lokalni suvenir. Vremenom su hodočasnici počeli uzimati školjke školjke koje su pronašli, a zatim su ih predstavili kao dokaz po povratku kući.

Isprva su hodočasnici koji su htjeli školjku od školjke morali nastaviti putovanje pored groba svetog Jakova do Finisterrea, ali do 12. stoljeća prodavači su vidjeli unosnu priliku i počeli prodavati školjke u blizini katedrale.

Osim kao suvenir za hodočasnike, školjka je korištena i kao zdjela za hranu i vodu.

Iz te bliske povezanosti s Caminom školjka je bila općenito poznata kao simbol hodočašća. Korišten je da simbolizira kršćansko putovanje prema nebu, evocirajući Pismo Hebrejima i kako smo „mi hodočasnici i stranci na zemlji“ (Hebrejima 11:13).

The Katekizam dalje objašnjava kako: „Hodočašća evociraju naše zemaljsko putovanje prema nebu i tradicionalno su vrlo posebne prilike za obnovu u molitvi. Za hodočasnike koji traže živu vodu, svetišta su posebno mjesto za življenje u oblicima kršćanske molitve ”(KKC 2691).

Imajući to na umu, školjka školjke je također korištena u vršenju sakramenta krštenja. Ne samo da se pokazao kao praktično oruđe za izlijevanje vode na nekoga, već je sa sobom nosio i tu istu simboliku hodočašća. Krštenje je početak kršćanskog putovanja i stoga, kada svećenik koristi školjku školjke za polivanje vode djetetu, pokreće to dijete na hodočašću prema nebu. Ovo je i razlog zašto se školjka školjke često može vidjeti umjetnički predstavljenom u krstionicama ili na krstionicama.

Ljuska školjke je drevni kršćanski simbol, onaj koji ima dugu i bogatu istoriju.



Čitaj više:
Želite li prošetati Camino de Santiago? Evo 10 stvari koje biste trebali znati


Nalazi se u Plymouthu

Nakon što su poslali istraživačku zabavu na obalu, Mayflower je sredinom decembra sletio u ono što bi nazvali Plymouth Harbour, na zapadnoj strani zaljeva Cape Cod. U sljedećih nekoliko mjeseci doseljenici su živjeli uglavnom na Mayfloweru i prevozili naprijed -nazad s obale kako bi izgradili svoje nove skladišne ​​i stambene prostore. Prva tvrđava i osmatračnica naselja izgrađena je na onome što je danas poznato kao Burial Hill (područje sadrži grobove Bradforda i drugih izvornih doseljenika).

Više od polovine engleskih doseljenika umrlo je tokom te prve zime, zbog loše prehrane i smještaja koji su se pokazali lošim po oštrom vremenu. Lideri kao što su Bradford, Standish, John Carver, William Brewster i Edward Winslow imali su važnu ulogu u održavanju preostalih doseljenika na okupu. U travnju 1621., nakon smrti prvog guvernera naselja, Johna Carvera, Bradford je jednoglasno izabran za tu poziciju, pa će biti biran 30 puta i služio je kao guverner Plymoutha svih osim pet godina do 1656.


Napredak hodočasnika: san koji traje

OVO VELIKO I JEDNOSTAVNO OTVARANJE Pilgrim & rsquos napredak može nas podsjetiti da je 1678. Bunyan & rsquos san isporučen čitalačkoj publici spremnoj da ga primi. Jer ne samo Britanci, već i Europljani općenito su se previše upoznali s moralnom složenošću prirodnog svijeta i teškoća njegovog kretanja na svakom njihovom putu bila je zbunjenost, njihovi lutajući koraci posrtali su u labirintu, labirintu, divljini. Već je John Amos Comenius, taj veliki obrazovni reformator međunarodnog glasa, objavio svoj Labirint svijeta i raj srca (1631), u kojem se nadao da će & ldquoboth pokazati sujetu svijeta i slavu, sreću i zadovoljstvo odabranih srca koja su sjedinjena s Bogom, & rdquo, dok je u nizu drugih hortatornih djela na engleskom jeziku sa naslovima koji upućuju na Bunyan & rsquos široko rasprostranjen u prvoj polovini XVII veka.

Stoga ne iznenađuje to Pilgrim & rsquos napredak should have met so early with &ldquogood acceptation among the people,&rdquo as publisher Nathaniel Ponder happily observed in an appendix to the fourth edition of 1680. Furnishing as it did much counsel, caution and consolation amid the toilsome traffic of daily life, it bore a message that was at once both useful and agreeable. What is more remarkable is the degree of its success as a best-seller. Bunyan&rsquos first editor, Charles Doe, noted in 1692 that about one hundred thousand copies were at that time in print in England alone and that the book had already appeared &ldquoin France, Holland, New England and in Welch&rdquo, a phenomenon suggesting to Doe how Bunyan&rsquos fame might yet &ldquobe the cause of spreading his other Gospel-Books over the European and American world, and in process of time may be so to the whole Universe.&rdquo So overwhelming indeed was the continuing popularity of the book that even learned critics of the eighteenth century, like Samuel Johnson and Jonathan Swift, could not forbear to cheer.

Nevertheless, the Age of Reason generally found Bunyan lacking in finesse, and it was left to the Romantics to uphold this very absence of refinement as a peculiar virtue. If Bunyan was an unlettered tinker out of Bedford, his allegory must be the untutored work of one who was truly a &ldquonatural&rdquo genius his pilgrim, after all, had power enough to affect the businesses and bosoms of all sorts and conditions of men. William Blake was sufficiently moved by Christian&rsquos adventures to create his twenty-nine incomparable water-color illustrations, while Samuel Taylor Coleridge thought the allegory &ldquothe best Summa Theologiae Evangelicae ever produced by a writer not miraculously inspired.&rdquo Adulation continued unabated throughout the nineteenth century and reached a peak in the evangelical fervor of the Victorian era.

American interest in The Pilgrim&rsquos Progress was initially fostered and later sustained by the prevalence of an apocalyptic view which anticipated the establishment of the New Jerusalem in the new world as the climactic event of history. The parallel between the vision of Christian&rsquos journey through a harsh and hostile world to a shining city on a hill and their own utopian dream and millenarian hope was too sharp for most Americans to miss. Accordingly, the influence of Bunyan&rsquos allegory in America was pervasive it is indicated not only by the astonishing number of American adaptations produced in the nineteenth century, of which Hawthorne&rsquos The Celestial Railroad is no doubt the best known, but also by the inspiration the allegory provided for authors as disparate as Hawthorne, Louisa May Alcott, Mark Twain, and E. E. Cummings.

Despite the current status of The Pilgrim&rsquos Progress as a world&rsquos classic, there is no question that in the twentieth century, with the general decline in piety, popular interest in the book on both sides of the Atlantic has waned enormously. Interestingly enough, however, there has been a compensatory attachment to the work at the academic level, for within the last twenty-five years Bunyan has been taken up by the universities. In what is surely a major irony The Pilgrim&rsquos Progress is now subjected to the most rigorous critical analysis by such leading scholars as Stanley Fish and Wolfgang Iser, who regard the allegory as an object of sophisticated art from which we can learn much about the capacity of literature to engage the reader&rsquos mind it is likewise appreciated by other students who have mined its resources for numerous doctoral dissertations. Today, the appearance of the allegory in the fine collected edition being published by the Oxford University Press bears eloquent testimony both to its durability and to the permanent validity of what it has to say.

Given these vagaries of the book&rsquos cultural history, can we explain why the dream has lasted? The main reasons are the nature of its message and the archetypal imagery which conveys it. While the image of life as a journey actually pre-dated the Christian era, it was from the start adopted to become one of the most potent metaphors in Christian thought, especially when wayfaring is combined, as here, with its cognate image of warfaring. For its use Bunyan was actually indebted to the popular culture of his time, because many English Puritan preachers had given precedent and sanction to the &ldquosimilitude&rdquo in writing their own accounts of the spiritual life. It is, then, to the interplay of tradition and the individual talent that we owe the metaphoric structure of The Pilgrim&rsquos Progress, a heterocosm of romance and adventure in which the Calvinist scheme of salvation is set forth as a progress from one discernible city to another and a process which has a definable beginning, a middle, and an end.

The initial scene is magnificent in its evocation of the solitariness of the long-distance runner. The picture of a man reading his Bible and experiencing a conviction of sin is the first indication of conversion: his anguished cry, &ldquoWhat shall I do to be saved?&rdquo opens the story with a query about individual responsibility, and the episodes that follow are so arranged as to demonstrate divine initiative and intervention in the course of salvation. As a general rule it may be said that the events that happen (such as the capture of Christian and Hopeful by Giant Despair) and the places visited (for instance, the Delectable Mountains) represent states of mind experienced during the progress. To read the book is thus to observe the elected soul negotiating the tricky and treacherous currents between the Scylla of over-confidence and the Charybdis of despair. Or it is to recognize that Christian&rsquos world is the world of Humpty Dumpty, but with this significant difference, that whereas not all the king&rsquos men could put Humpty Dumpty together again, Christian falls to rise, is baffled only to fight better. From this perspective The Pilgrim&rsquos Progress is largely a pictorial representation of the doctrine of sanctification, a fact which helps us to understand why the crucial scene at the Cross comes so early in the book after less than one third of the story has been told. It also goes a long way towards explaining why this beautiful scene, in which Christian loses his burden of sin in the imputed righteousness of Christ and receives a token of his election from the Three Shining Ones, is so economically if deftly sketched. Bunyan&rsquos especial allegorical interest in sanctification is no more than the artistic correlative of that development of Calvinist theology which seventeenth-century English Puritans had made specifically their own and for which they had become famous throughout Europe.

Yet the concentration on sanctification is by no means exclusive all other steps in the plan of salvation find their place in the design of the whole. Following the scene at the outset comes the masterly episode of Mr. Worldy Wiseman which describes the period of formal or legal Christianity preceding effectual calling. The pilgrim is thereafter pressed onward to the Cross where his justification is made plain by his change of raiment, the mark on his forehead and the receipt of his roll. Now that the bargain has been sealed, the sequel deals with the pilgrim&rsquos growth in grace but every in his vicissitudes we are made to feel the binding nature of the covenant entered into at the Cross. That is why, for example, the debate with Apollyon concerns its contractual basis, the argument turning on the relationship between master and servant. And since the pilgrim does continue to follow his Master, the bond is ultimately ratified when sanctified Christian passes to the glory of the New Jerusalem.

Election, vocation, justification, sanctification, glorification: such are the stages Bunyan maps out as the progress of the elect soul. Christian is therefore not Everyman, but he is every man&rsquos paradigm, and his application is universal. Nowhere, it seems, has the scheme of salvation been set forth more attractively and with such force and clarity. In its lack of moral ambiguity the allegory highlights a peculiar beauty of Calvinist theology as Bunyan represents &ldquothe Way&rdquo with a definitiveness one would have to go back to the first-century Didache to match. It is this concrete quality of the work, founded as it is upon the bedrock of human need and aspiration, that grounds our experience of it in reality and accounts in large measure for its permanence.

The same unabashed moral frankness, the same refusal to shrink from the disagreeable aspects of life, so reminiscent of the Shakespeare of Kralj Lear or the Milton ofLycidas, are apparent also in the memorable characters that inhabit the allegory. Od The Pilgrim &rsquos Progress is a drama of predestination, all the characters met with are either doomed and damned or enskied or sainted. This sharp demarcation is evident throughout the allegory, so that Bunyan, in writing his Apology about how he quickly had his thoughts &ldquoin the black and white,&rdquo speaks no less than the figurative truth. It is not that he is insensitive to nuances of character or subtleties of behavior, but rather that he consistently expresses a moral position based on assurance and such an attitude determines his character delineation. If Faithful be truly the type of Christian martyr, he must stand fixed in a self-denying humility as constant as the Northern Star. If Lord Hate-good condemn him, he must display peacock pomposity and bluster in braggadocio. There is nothing crude about such character-drawing indeed, it is motivated by a desire for artistic integrity.

Within these limits Bunyan characteristically proceeds to create personae of great individuality. His creatures are not mere types or pale ghosts tagged with allegorical labels, but men and women of flesh and blood. Even the best souls are not without their shortcomings, as Christian sometimes appears too self&mdashcentered for our liking, too intent on winning his own felicity nor are Faithful and Hopeful easily acquitted of superciliousness from time to time.

The portrait of Ignorance is the richest painting of a villain in the whole book, and he is realized economically at the outset by a phrase, &ldquoa very brisk lad,&rdquo which places him as one concerned with only the externals of religion. On the other hand, By-ends is categorized by a skillful handling of context: he is from the town of Fairspeech yet will not speak his name but he does name all his kindred until he stands exposed as a fair-weather supporter (&ldquomost zealous when religion goes in his silver slippers&rdquo) whose motive is self-interest. Like so may other characters, By-ends is etched indelibly on the reader&rsquos mind and he exemplifies but another aspect of Bunyan&rsquos art that sustains continuing interest in the allegory.

These separate excellencies of structure, theme and characterization still might not move us were they not fused by a style which is rightly praised for its simplicity, directness, economy and vigor. George Bernard Shaw was even prepared (with typical Shavian extravagance) to award the palm to Bunyan against Shakespeare for the brilliance of Apollyon&rsquos speech. Certainly much of the narrator&rsquos persuasive power derives from Bunyan&rsquos manipulation of language, which is often homely and colloquial in dialogue yet opulent and expansive in its range of biblical imagery and reference (particularly apocalyptic), to focus our attention where he wishes, all with the object of involving us in the action. And the case remains true whether we are trapped in Doubting Castle, restoring ourselves after the struggle with Apollyon, fearfully picking our way through the Valley of the Shadow of Death or solacing ourselves upon the Delectable Mountains.

Such are the qualities that have enabled Bunyan&rsquos dream to endure and to confront the challenge of time and circumstance. What of the future? There is some hope that Bunyan&rsquos little book may once again be returned to its original ownership, the common people, for while it has suffered from the disrepute into which many Puritan works have fallen, there are within it some identifiable elements far less dated than we often find it convenient to admit. Like all classics, The Pilgrim&rsquos Progress asserts values that are of a timeless validity, and what remains from our experience of it is a vision of human life and destiny which far transcends any other consideration. Through its emphasis on the worth of the individual soul, its forceful expression of a life beyond the present and the meaning this gives to the here-and-now, the dream can yet deliver a message supremely relevant to our nuclear age. For still the cry remains: &ldquoWhat shall I do to be saved?&rdquo CH

By James F. Forrest

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #11 in 1986]


According to Christianity, one of the original 12 apostles – Santiago, aka Saint James – helped spread the religion throughout the Iberian Peninsula. One theory states that when he died, his disciples put his body in a boat, which landed on the coast of Spain, just west of where Santiago de Compostela stands today. The other maintains that his body was found by a Galician farmer near the town of Padrón centuries later. Either way, it’s said that King Alfonso II ordered the relics to be buried in a specially built chapel, which would later become the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, attracting pilgrims from across Europe.

The Camino grew in popularity in the Middle Ages, with more than 250,000 pilgrims visiting every year, and it became one of the three most popular Christian pilgrimages – the other two being to Jerusalem and Rome.


Pilgrim Psychiatric Center

In 1927, New York Governor Alfred Smith, with public support, pressed the legislature to appropriate money to obtain a minimum of 10,000 beds needed to relieve overcrowding and treat the increasing numbers of people who would need treatment in a mental institution.

Such a big hospital had to be located out in the country where land was cheap. One thousand acres in Brentwood was chosen for this reason.

Pilgrim State Hospital was created by the Legislature in 1929 and named for Dr. Charles W. Pilgrim, Commissioner of Mental Health in the early 1900s. The hospital officially opened for the care and treatment of patients on 825 acres with 100 patients transferred from Central Islip State Hospital on October 1, 1931. Nine months later, 2,018 patients were hospitalized at Pilgrim. The census rose to its peak in 1954, with 13,875 patients.

Pilgrim was the largest facility of its kind in the world when it was built. The hospital community was independent in that it had its own water works, electric light plant, heating plant, sewage system, fire department, police department, courts, church, post office, cemetery, laundry, store, amusement hall, athletic fields, greenhouses, and farm.

Over time, as increasing numbers of patients were able to be discharged and greater support and services became available in the community, the need for such large facilities to treat the mentally ill diminished. Following the trend, Kings Park Psychiatric Center and Central Islip Psychiatric Center were consolidated and relocated to the Pilgrim campus in the Fall of 1996. The following Fall, those facilities were merged into Pilgrim Psychiatric Center under one name.

Pilgrim Psychiatric Center provides a continuum of inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services. The campus includes several residential agencies including:

  • Central Nassau Guidance Center and Transitional Services
  • Charles K. Post Addiction Treatment Center
  • Phoenix House, a residential treatment center for those with substance abuse diagnosis

Pilgrim operates four outpatient treatment centers and one ACT Team throughout Suffolk County.

Inpatient Services offer a wide variety of treatment options within two modern complexes. Treatment focus:

  • Rapid recovery with symptom reduction
  • Programs that develop skills to manage psychiatric illness and better function in the community
  • Active discharge planning and support for individuals returning to community living

Multi–disciplinary teams provide treatment in individual and group formats. On–ward treatment spaces reflect state–of–the art design and a therapeutic environment. Off–ward program and recreational space are available within each building.

There are 12 inpatient wards including 3 admission wards, 2 geriatric wards (1 admission), and 7 Psychiatric Rehabilitation wards.

Regular Visiting Hours

  • Monday to Friday: 3 p.m. to 4:30 p.m., 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.
  • Weekends and Holidays: 10 a.m. to noon, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m., 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.
  • Certain restrictions apply with regard to items brought when visiting patients. Visitors should call the ward personnel prior to the visit for further information on this policy.

Intensive Treatment Unit Visiting Hours

  • Monday, Wednesday, Friday: 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.
  • Tuesday, Thursday: 3 p.m. to 4:30 p.m.
  • Saturday, Sunday: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.
  • Sunday and Holidays: 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.

Quality Report

Pilgrim is accredited by the Join Commission. We are in compliance with all applicable Behavioral Healthcare and Hospital Standards. Pilgrim has been recognized as a Top Performer on Key Quality Measures in the past.

You can access Pilgrim PC's Joint Commission Quality Report. Visit www.qualitycheck.org and search for Pilgrim Psychiatric Center.

To report concerns about patient safety and quality of care, contact Pilgrim's Quality Management Department at (631)761-2912.

We provide a comprehensive array of treatments and services that inspire people with unique mental health needs to experience hope, self-determination and success in their lives.

We envision a mental health system that is driven by the goals and aspirations of the people we serve and provides a healing experience through exceptional collaborative treatment.

Professional and personal growth and full accountability for our actions are essential.

When we work together as a team, we can accomplish more than any one person can accomplish alone.

Every individual can lead a life with meaning and purpose.

Every person is different, each shaped by unique life experience. We recognize that differences in age, race, gender, nationality, sexual orientation, physical ability, thinking style, and background bring richness to our work environment. Our differences help us connect better to the health needs of the people we serve.

We believe that attracting, developing, and retaining a base of employees that reflect the diversity of our customers is essential to success.

Integrated and evidenced based mental health care helps individuals maximize resilience and achieve wellness.

Interactions with individuals must be engaging, empowering, empathic and tolerant and respectful.

It is the policy of Pilgrim Psychiatric Center to provide services that are culturally sensitive and linguistically competent.

We deliver treatment services in a manner compatible with preferences that reflect a patient&rsquos:

  • Personal values
  • Beliefs
  • Preferred language
  • Cultural, ethnic, and/or religious heritage

Empathetic and respectful communication is vital to the delivery of our services. Together, we determine an individual's language needs before admission. If they need interpretive or assistive listening devices, we provide the service during the admission process.

In addition to on&ndashward treatment, Pilgrim offers a variety of off&ndashward locations for treatment, recreation, and programming. Alternate treatment environments are available to address the needs of our patients.

  • Centralized Treatment Programs provide a variety of active treatment groups within a lesser restrictive environment and using additional available resources. The Treatment and Learning Center is a daily program offering classes in many areas of recovery including: medication education, social skills training, constructive use of leisure time, self-management skills, and related group sessions aimed at helping patients acquire the skills needed to become ready for discharge and function successfully in the community. A model apartment setting assists patients in community living preparation. Professional staff uses discussion groups, visual aids, and multi-media presentations to engage groups in the learning process.
  • The MSTE ROOM (multi-sensory therapeutic environment) is a dedicated room that brings together a variety of multi-sensory equipment in one place to stimulate senses at the desired level. This area promotes feelings of well being and is utilized in treatment to promote choice, interaction, and relaxation through planned sensory stimulation. The patient is the one who sets the tone for each session as the staff facilitate the development of self-regulatory skills.
  • Rehabilitation Services provides a variety of treatment activities aimed at assisting the individual to improve and maximize independent functioning and consider the role of work in one’s life. Through group and individual counseling, consumers set goals, develop motivation and engagement, and improve skills in the areas of coping/stress management, social and interpersonal communication, wellness, and cognitive enhancement. Concentrated services such as vocational counseling, assessment, job exploration and readiness preparation, as well as, job placement can be provided once discharged back to the community.
  • The Nature Center consists of a greenhouse and surrounding gardens where patients have the opportunity to participate in horticulture therapy.
  • The Barn hosts an Animal&ndashAssisted Therapy and Activities program in which therapeutic treatment takes place using the interactions between patients and farm animals as the intervention.
  • Music Therapy involves a systematic process of intervention wherein the therapist helps the individual to promote health using music experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable a therapeutic milieu. Sessions are provided on an individual or group basis and techniques include vocalizing with individuals using various instruments, song-writing, and musical improvisation.
  • The Discharge Academy Program is designed to provide members with the opportunity to practice daily living skills prior to discharge. These skills will enhance the ability to live successfully in the community and to prepare for more independent living. The program takes place in a model apartment environment where an educational session is followed by hands-on practice of skills learned. Individuals graduate at the end of the program and a new session begins with others readying for discharge.

The Rehabilitation Center provides centralized space for many off–ward programs. This state–of–the art facility hosts a Swimming Pool, Bowling Alley, Gymnasium, Game Room, Fitness and Exercise Room, and Library and is available daily Monday to Friday, select Evenings, and Saturday Mornings. Classrooms for patient education, treatment groups, ceramic studio, kitchen areas, and meeting space are utilized here. A large Auditorium (capacity 289) is used for staff presentations, conferences, and patient activities. Recent movies are programmed and broadcast weekly for patients' viewing during evening and weekend hours and are also shown for direct viewing on a 22’ long movie theater style screen with surround sound.

The Long Island Psychiatric Museum is located on the Pilgrim campus and offers a vast collection of memorabilia, artifacts, and photos representing the history of the three Long Island hospitals (Kings Park, Central Islip, Pilgrim) that were active at one time and have since been merged with Pilgrim Psychiatric Center.

The Museum is accessible to the public by appointment only. Hours of operation are limited. For further information, please call (631)761-3805.

The Pilgrim Psychiatric Center's Internship Program is accredited by:

This one-year (Sept. &ndash Sept.) experience is for Doctoral candidates in Psychology which follows an apprenticeship/practitioner model.

This internship provides intensive, experiential training in the core skills of clinical psychology, within a state psychiatric hospital, working with severely and persistently mentally ill patients in the public sector. The population we serve consists mainly of individuals with severe impairments, whose diagnoses include:

  • schizophrenia,
  • affective and anxiety disorders,
  • substance abuse problems,
  • and personality disorders.

Interns work side by side with seasoned clinicians. They have a variety of assignments and opportunities to observe and treat serious and persistent mental illnesses, witness the effects of treatment, and assist the patient towards therapeutic re&ndashintegration into the community (i.e., discharge).

Learn more about the Doctoral Psychology Internship Program. If you require additional assistance in viewing the document, you can write or call: Telephone: (631) 761&ndash2399, Fax: (631) 761&ndash3770.

APA/Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Approved

This one-year (June-July) clinical experience is an APA accredited program for 3rd or 4th year Doctoral candidates in Psychology. The program follows an apprenticeship/practitioner model.

Externs are considered volunteers as they are unpaid and have 16-hour weekly schedules.

Learn more about the Doctoral Psychology Externship Program. If you require additional assistance in viewing the document, you can write or call: Jennifer May, Ph.D. at 631-761-3275.

At Pilgrim Psychiatric Center, the families of our patients are considered an integral part of the treatment process and family involvement is welcome.

The facility provides the following Family Support Services:

  • Family Advisory Board: The Family Advisory Board is comprised of a group of relatives of past and present Pilgrim Psychiatric Center patients. The Family Advisory Board meets monthly with the Coordinator of Family Support Services to discuss issues related to overall patient care and treatment. Issues raised by the Family Advisory Board are communicated to the hospital administration. The Coordinator and the Family Advisory Board also plan annual events, such as the Family and Friends Open House, and the holiday gift distribution project.
  • Family and Friends Center: The Family and Friends Center is currently located in Building 45, 1 st floor. It is a visiting area where patients and their relatives or friends may enjoy a visit in a home&ndashlike atmosphere. There is a stereo, televisions, a game table, coffee&ndashmaker and microwave oven available for the convenience of families .

Specialty Services for Inpatients

Specialized treatment and services are offered for those patients with varying needs, as follows:

  • Substance Abuse Services: group and individual counseling assisting individuals to gain knowledge and insight and develop coping skills to manage use of substances that regularly impact on functioning.
  • Geriatric Services: Age&ndashspecific services for individuals age 65 and above reflective of treatment techniques that address changes in physical, psychosocial and cognitive abilities.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): an inpatient program for individuals with Borderline Personality features that provides individual therapy and group skills training in stress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness.
  • DBT,S (Substance Abuse): weekly inpatient program emphasizing the use of DBT skills to help in recovery for substance abuse.
  • Intensive Treatment Unit (ITU): offers short &ndashterm specialized services to those patients who require extensive individualized treatment interventions to achieve a state of equilibrium and who require additional safeguards for their personal well&ndashbeing until they are able to function within a more standard treatment format. Modalities include individual and groups psychotherapies, as well as behavioral programs. After stabilization of the target behaviors, patients are returned to their regular treatment unit. Treatment to individuals who are referred by the court system for observation is also provided.
  • Bridger Program: this program provides linkage and support for inpatients with long hospital stays when the possibility of discharge becomes imminent. Dedicated "bridger" staff work with patients to enable them to move into the community with greater hope, confidence and an increased probability of success.
  • Polydipsia Program: a program providing specialized care and treatment for patients who display excessive water drinking, water intoxication, and/or hyponatremia, a potentially life threatening loss of sodium. The focus is on a ward&ndashbased token economy system, with additional psychotherapy and psychoeducation to increase knowledge and awareness about the disorder, and behavior therapy to increase skills needed to manage the condition.
  • CONNECTIONS Program: this program involves consumers who are transitioning from the inpatient to outpatient setting and aims to establish a relationship with the patient necessary to providing effective transitional/community supports which are based on individual needs and recovery goals. Using person-centered planning, program staff meet with the resident for a four-week period. Collaboration between the staff of the Connections Program, residence staff, and client is encouraged and essential to making the successful transition to community living.

Pilgrim Psychiatric Center operates a broad range of outpatient services both on campus and throughout the community in Suffolk County. Sites are staffed with psychiatrists, social workers, psychologists, community mental health nurses, rehabilitation and recreation staff, peer specialists, and paraprofessional staff. Services available include: recovery services, treatment services -evaluation, medication, counseling and therapy, vocational services, co-occurring disorder services, life enrichment, peer run services, crisis intervention, psycho-education.

Biannual Family Nights are held at each clinic to offer support from clinic staff and other family members, orientation to services available at our clinics, and education about mental health issues.

For detailed information on intake, treatment and social support services, call the number listed for each location.

Specialty Services for Outpatients

  • The Intensive Case Management Program provides an intensive level of supervision to those clients who are frequent system users and have specialized needs in the community. This program serves as a support and follows clients throughout outpatient and inpatient admissions.
  • The Case Management Program is a "step&ndashdown" program for those clients who need support to function in the community but do not require the level of intensity provided by the ICM program.
  • Both Case Management Programs serve consumers in the community but may follow them back into the facility if re&ndashhospitalization becomes necessary.
  • A crisis Hotline provides 24 hour crisis phone intakes, referrals, and contacts after business hours for psychiatric crisis needs. The Crisis Team operates Monday to Friday, 10 am to 6:30 pm and can be reached by calling the Suffolk County Crisis Hotline @ (631)952-3333.
  • The Mobile Crisis Teams provide outreach services in Suffolk County for psychiatric emergencies. The Team provides on&ndashsite assessment, counseling, referral, and hospitalization, as needed.
  • The Mobile Integration Team provides community-based treatment and support services by licensed clinicians, non-licensed para-professionals, and Peers. The goal of the program is to: support efforts to maintain the person in his or her natural environment, provide immediate access to treatment services designed to stabilize crisis situations, reduce environmental and social stressors, and effectively reduce demand on emergency departments and inpatient hospital services. The program is designed to provide an intensive level of care that is fully community-based and occurring in the individual’s home environment or another preferred community setting.

Residential programs range from the semi&ndashindependent living of the State Operated Community Residence, to the shorter stay Crisis Residence Units, to the home care of the Family Care program. Each program offers a unique set of advantages to consumers, promoting empowerment and self determination, while ensuring care and safety.

  • Crisis Residence: This on&ndashcampus 17 bed residence provides temporary housing and is an alternative to admission for those consumers who are experiencing housing or other situational crises. Residents receive psychiatric services from Pilgrim's community programs or from other providers as needed.
  • Family Care: For those consumers who have functional limitations and who need supervision on a continual basis, the homes provided by the Family Care Program offer a family setting. Home services range from a family like setting to the more intensive "personal care" homes for those who need assistance with the most basic aspects of caring for themselves. Homes are located throughout Nassau and Suffolk County.
  • State Operated Community Residences (SOCR) &ndash sponsored by the New York State Office of Mental Health and Pilgrim Psychiatric Center, eleven residences throughout Nassau and Suffolk County provide transitional placement. Homes range from 10 beds to 24 beds and are supervised by staff 24 hours/day. Services are provided to improve independent living skills and enable individuals to move to a less restrictive setting in the community.

Comments or questions about the information on this page can be directed to the Pilgrim Psychiatric Center.


Pilgrim Accommodation

Prices an opening hours can be found at nidarospilegrimsgard.no, booking

  • Private parking is possible on site (reservation is needed) and costs NOK 150 per day.
  • Free wifi.

For questions, contact us by phone: +47 73 52 50 00.

Pilgrim prices for accommodation

Pilgrims can book a bed in the dormitory at a reasonable price, or rent a room with a discount. Visit nidarospilegrimsgard.no, pilegrim booking.

  • The pilgrim price is valid for 2 nights only. For guest nights beyond this, our standard rates apply.
  • Dogs are allowed! inform us of the extra guest when booking a room. An extra fee will be added for the dog.

Remember to bring a valid pilgrim passport that shows you have walked the Pilegirmsleden.


The Medieval Christian Tattoos You’ve Probably Never Heard Of

For religious pilgrims, souvenirs of the journey can be a powerful reminder of the sacrifice and devotion along the way. Beginning in the Middle Ages, religious pilgrimages for Christians became the main form of extended trip for many people. While the wealthy could travel at leisure, other classes would have had to save up in order to make the trip, often walking incredible distances. Once at their destination, often Canterbury, Rome, or Jerusalem, they would take a shell or a piece of a shrine as a token. But, starting about 700 years ago, another popular form of pilgrim’s badge was tattooing.

Today tattoos often get a bad rap, but there was a time when this ancient practice was a mark of distinction among Christians, though early Christian edicts do distinguish between the relevance of secular and Christian tattoos: “When an individual undergoes the ordeal of tattooing for the sake of God, he is greatly praised.”

While the practice of tattooing goes back thousands of years, it was during the Crusades (beginning in 1095) that Christian pilgrims began getting ink once they reached the Holy Land. The practice was also popular among Coptic Christians in Egypt and beyond. A tattoo is still required before admittance in some Coptic churches to show your true faith.

The known history of Christian tattoos dates back to the 6th or 7th century in Egypt and Jerusalem and spread to Africa and Europe from there. There is still one family who give pilgrim tattoos in Jerusalem and have been doing so for 270 years. Razzouk Ink is a family shop near the Tower of David that has been servicing pilgrims since 1750 and the tradition has been passed down from father to son over the centuries.

Popular tattoo designs are images of saints, the Virgin Mary, or the Jerusalem cross (seen below). Often the years of pilgrimage will be added to the tattoo, with a trip to the tattoo parlor becoming a part of the pilgrimages themselves.

Razzouk Inkis the last remaining tattoo shop for Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem. After the Israeli War of Independence many families fled and never returned as the Razzouk family did which means there are now no other tattoo shop for pilgrims in the area. The shop also now does modern secular tattoos as well, after the current tattooer, Wassim, took over from his father and made some updates.

The Razzouk family use some of the historic stamps which were used in antiquity, as well as modern paper transfers, to produce the tattoos. Razzouk Ink is the only place where pilgrims can get a tattoo from these historic wooden stamps, which have been in his family for centuries.

We often think of tattoos today as something on the fringes or done as an act of rebellion. In the 20th century tattoos became more normal when sailors began getting ink in the Pacific. But, even then it was considered a rarity for anyone who wasn’t in the armed forces. But, for pilgrims in medieval times (and now) it is a sign of devotion.


Pogledajte video: The Time You Wait (Maj 2022).