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Timothy Leary o proširenju uma

Timothy Leary o proširenju uma


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Zalaganje Timothyja Learyja za lijekove koji mijenjaju um učinilo ga je, riječima Richarda Nixona, "najopasnijim čovjekom u Americi". Na konferenciji za novinare u San Franciscu 1966., Leary savjetuje svoju publiku da se "uključi, uključi, odustane".


Timothy Leary

Jedna od stranih tvrdnji o slavi Odsjeka za psihologiju na Harvardu je ta što je nekada bio dom dvije vodeće ličnosti u kontrakulturi i kulturi psihodeličnih droga šezdesetih godina.

Godine 1960., dva perspektivna mlada psihologa sa Harvarda, Timothy Leary i Richard Alpert, počeli su istraživati ​​učinke psihotropnih tvari na ljudski um.

Oni su zaključili da je psihologija proučavanje uma, uključujući njegov odnos prema mozgu, tijelu i okolini. Psihologija, tvrdili su, ima legitiman interes u tome kako tvari koje mijenjaju um utječu na spoznaju, percepciju i emocije. U to vrijeme moguće opasnosti istraživanja takvih tvari nisu bile toliko poznate kao u narednim desetljećima.

Sa doktoratom na psihologiji sa Univerziteta Stanford, Richard Alpert je došao na Harvard 1953. godine kao docent. U početku karijere Alpert je proveo istraživanje ličnosti i socijalne psihologije.

Timothy Leary je doktorirao. doktorirao je psihologiju na Univerzitetu Berkeley, a došao je predavati na Harvard 1959. Learyjevo rano istraživanje fokusiralo se na interakciju dimenzija ličnosti i društvenih odnosa, a radio je i kao psihoterapeut.

Ubrzo nakon Learyjevog dolaska na Harvard, on i Alpert započeli su Harvardski projekt Psilocybin. Psilocibin je enteogeni halucinogen koji se prirodno javlja u određenim vrstama gljiva. Leary i Alpert pokušali su dokumentirati njegove učinke na ljudsku svijest dajući ga dobrovoljnim subjektima i snimajući njihove opise iskustva u stvarnom vremenu. U vrijeme Learyjevog i Alpertovog istraživanja na Harvardu, ni LSD ni psilocibin nisu bili ilegalne tvari u Sjedinjenim Državama.

Do 1962. različiti članovi fakulteta i administratori na Harvardu bili su zabrinuti za sigurnost Learyjevih i Alpertovih istraživačkih predmeta i kritizirali su strogost njihove neortodoksne metodologije (posebno su istraživači provodili svoja istraživanja kada su i oni bili pod utjecajem psilocibina) . Learyjeve i Alpertove kolege osporile su znanstvenu vrijednost svog istraživanja, kao i naizgled kavalirskiji stav s kojim je ono provedeno (npr. Loše kontrolirani uvjeti, ne-slučajan odabir subjekata). Uvodnici objavljeni na Harvard Crimsonu optuživali su Alperta i Learyja ne samo za istraživanje psihotropnih lijekova, već i za aktivno promicanje njihove rekreacijske upotrebe.

Leary i Alpert insistirali su na naučnoj svrsi svojih nastojanja i složili se s politikom čiji je cilj zaštita njihovih predmeta, uključujući zabranu učešća studenata osnovnih studija. U početku su Leary i Alpert u svom istraživanju koristili samo studente volontere (ako nisu u potpunosti informirani). Međutim, u proljeće 1963. Harvard je bio primoran otpustiti Alperta nakon što je studentu dodiplomskog studija izvan kampusa dao psilocibin. Leary je također otpušten sa univerziteta, a Harvard Psilocybin Project se naglo završio.

Diskreditirani zbog nedostatka znanstvene strogosti i nepoštivanja utvrđenih istraživačkih smjernica, Timothy Leary i Richard Alpert obojica su protjerani s akademske zajednice, ali to je bilo daleko od kraja njihovog javnog života: obojica su postala ikone psihodelične droge, kontrakulturu i pokret ljudskih potencijala. Leary je postao poznat po sloganu "Tune in, Turn On, Drop Out": Alpert je, pod imenom Baba Ram Dass, napisao popularnu knjigu pod nazivom Be Here Now, opisanu kao "moderni duhovni klasik".

Capshew, J.H. (1999). Psiholozi u martu: Nauka, praksa i profesionalni identitet u Americi, 1929-1969. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Krassner, P., ur. (2001). Psihodelični izleti za um. New York: Trans-High Corporation.

Leary, T. (1983). Recenzije: Autobiografija. Los Angeles, CA: J.P. Tarcher, Inc.

Leary, T. & amp. Alpert, R. (1962). Pismo uredniku. Harvard Crimson, 13. decembra 1962.

Sigel, E. (1962). Stručnjak za psilocibin reparira Learyja, Alperta o drogama. Harvard Crimson, 12. decembra 1962


Psihodelična istorija CIA -e

Napisali Jeffery St. Clair i Alexander Cockburn, objavljeno u CounterPunch.org

17. juna 1999. država Texas je smrtonosnom injekcijom ubila Johna Stanleyja Fauldera, Kanađanina koji je 1977. osuđen za ubistvo Inez Phillips, naftne nasljednice. Faulder -ov slučaj je ovih dana privukao veću pažnju medija nego većina egzekucija, uglavnom zato što je kanadska vlada pokušala intervenirati u njegovo ime i pozvala guvernera Teksasa Georgea W. Busha da mu poštedi život. Ne dirnut argumentima da mu je nakon hapšenja Faulder uskratio pravo da se konsultuje sa zvaničnicima kanadske ambasade, Bush ga je poslao u smrtnu sobu.

Ono što američka štampa potpuno nije spomenula bilo je to da je Stanley Faulder prije 37 godina bio nesvjesna žrtva medicinskih eksperimenata koje je djelomično financirala CIA. Prema Faulderovoj sestri, Pat Nicholl, koja živi u Jasparu, Alberta, “U 15 godina Stanley je uhapšen zbog krađe sata i poslan u dječačku kuću na šest mjeseci. Sa 17 godina, zbog druge krađe, dobio je šest mjeseci zatvora. Sa 22 godine uhvaćen je u ukradenom automobilu i poslan u zatvor u New Westminsteru, BC dvije godine. Tamo je zatražio psihijatrijsku pomoć i stavljen je u eksperimentalni program lijekova koji je uključivao doze LSD -a. ”

"Glavno pitanje građanskih sloboda u sljedećoj deceniji bit će kontrola i proširenje svijesti", izjavili su Timothy Leary i Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) u pismu Harvard Crimsonu na njihovom zatvorenom projektu proučavanja terapijskog potencijala psihodelika. „Ko kontroliše vaš korteks? Ko odlučuje o rasponu i granicama vaše svijesti? Ako želite istražiti vlastiti nervni sistem, proširite svoju svijest, ko odlučuje da ne možete i zašto? "

Faulder je bio jedan od stotina kanadskih zatvorenika na kojima su psihijatri eksperimentirali 1960 -ih i 1970 -ih. Zatvorski program LSD -a vodio je dr George Scott, psihijatar osoblja Kanadske savezne popravne ustanove, koji je tokom Drugog svjetskog rata bio direktor odjela za psihološku rehabilitaciju Kanadske vojske. Nakon rata, Scott se udružio sa psihijatrima iz Allan Memorial Instituta, uključujući i zloglasnu Ewen Cameron, kako bi pokrenuli razne eksperimente s drogama, elektrošokovima, senzornom deprivacijom i tolerancijom boli, koristeći zatvorenike i pacijente u mentalnim bolnicama kao zamorce. LSD za neke od eksperimenata, kao i sredstva za istraživanje, obezbijedili su CIA i Kanadsko ministarstvo odbrane.

Scottu je oduzeta dozvola za bavljenje medicinom. Sankcija nije bila za doziranje zatvorenika psihotropnim lijekovima, već za oponašanje Šandora Ferenczija prolaskom prema pacijenticama. Čak je i ovdje Scott koristio drogu i elektrošokove kako bi pomogao u zavođenju. Prema sudskim spisima, Scott je koristio tehniku ​​koja se zove "narko-analiza" kako bi manipulirao jednom od žena u seksu s njim. Narko analiza uključuje velike doze natrijum pentotala i Ritalina. Scott je upotrijebio pentotal, u kombinaciji s elektrošokom, da svoju žrtvu dovede u gotovo komatozno stanje, usadio erotske prijedloge, a zatim je osvijestio snimkama Ritalina. To se nastavilo u periodu od pet godina. Scott je čak ženi prepisao pilule za kontrolu rađanja.

Godine 1969., Robert Renaud, zatvorenik u kaznionici u Kingstonu, tvrdio je da mu je Scott izrekao žestoke udarce elektrošoka kao kaznu zbog nesaradnje sa doktorom. Kao i Faulder, Renaud je bio u zatvoru zbog krađe i nije se smatrao nasilnim. Scott je odbacio Renaudov navod, iako su se nedavno pojavili filmovi psihijatra koji šokiraju zatvorenike iz tog vremena. Kao odgovor, Scott je rekao da je samo jednom tjedno izvodio elektrošokove na zatvorenike koji su "bili dovoljno bolesni".

Scotta su tužile 24 zatvorenice koje kažu da su bile podvrgnute njegovim LSD eksperimentima. Jedna od žena koja je donijela odijelo je Dorothy Proctor. Dobila je LSD u ženskom zatvoru u Kingstonu 1961. godine - iste godine kada je Faulder bio drogiran. Proctor je bila 17-godišnja crnkinja, koja je služila trogodišnju kaznu zbog pljačke, kada joj je Scott dijagnosticirao sociopatu i stavio je u svoj eksperimentalni program, koji je uključivao senzornu deprivaciju (52-dnevni boravak u rupi), elektrošokovi i mega-doze LSD-a. [Tužba je riješena van suda 2002.]

U intervjuu za program CBC -a “Jutros” iz 1998. godine, Proctor je slikovito opisala prvi put kada joj je ponuđen LSD jer je bila usred dugog boravka u samici:

„Zatvorski psihijatar silazi u Rupu i sa sobom ima studenticu, studenticu psihičke psihologije sa Kraljičinog univerziteta i ona će bilježiti. Povuče stolicu za nju i njega, a oni su vani u hodniku ćelije, razgovaraju kroz rešetke. Na podu sam, nema dušeka samo ćebe. Zatim me izvode iz ćelije koja ima komodu. Sada sam u ćeliji sa rupom na podu za toalet. To je bilo rezervno pa sam i ja u svom otpadu i smradu. Pa je izašao i predstavio mi ovo, znate, želimo vam toliko pomoći. Želimo da se ispravite i želimo da se rehabilitirate. A ja sam vaš prijatelj i vrijedni ste spašavanja. Zato samo sarađuj sa mnom. A ja imam tabletu koja bi vam mogla pomoći. Ja ću te spasiti. To je bio LSD. Mislim da nije prošlo 15 ili 20 minuta prije Danteovog pakla. Bilo je očigledno. Zaključan sam. Ne mogu pobjeći. I zidovi počinju da se useljavaju u mene. I tope se. Šipke su se pretvorile u zmije i u mom tijelu je bila užasna vibracija. Samo užasno. I samo sam mislio da sam poludio. ”

Scott je odustao od tvrdnji, rekavši Ottawa Citizen u jednom intervjuu 1997. godine nije zažalio zbog svojih aktivnosti. „Zadovoljan sam sobom. Baš me briga. "

PRIČA: Renesansa psihodelika u psihijatriji

Timothy Leary: "Gore od Benedikta Arnolda"

1. srpnja 1999. web stranica Smoking Gun postavila je 14 stranica iz više od 500 FBI -ovih transkripata i memoranduma, pokazujući da je LSD guru Timothy Leary dobrovoljno krenuo u cinkarenje, a zatim cinkarošima federalcima otkrio svoje znanje o Weather Undergroundu i gotovo bilo kome drugom Learyju mislio da bi federalci mogli biti zainteresovani, uključujući njegovu bivšu suprugu Rosemary, njegove advokate i suprugu jednog od njegovih advokata. Bilo je to 1974. godine kada je Leary bio u zatvoru Folsom na sjeveroistoku Kalifornije, nakon što je osuđen za brojna hapšenja marihuane plus vrijeme za bijeg iz zatvora.

Nije sasvim svježa vijest da je pokojni Timothy Leary bio cvilitelj i cinkaroš FBI -a. Cinkanje je u to vrijeme bilo dobro poznato. FBI je želio otkriti činjenicu da je Leary, veliki svećenik LSD -a i moćnik kontrakulture, pjevao o svojim bivšim saradnicima.


Timothy Leary o proširenju uma - POVIJEST

Širenje uma. (intervju sa Timothyjem Learyjem)

Timothy Leary je bivši profesor psihologije s Harvarda čija je filozofija, "Uključi se, uključi, odustani", promijenila lice Amerike 1960 -ih. Od tada su mu se interesi okrenuli računarima i virtualnoj stvarnosti. Povremeno se dr. Leary pojavljuje na America Online -u radi neformalne interakcije s pretplatnicima. Evo transkripta jednog od njegovih nedavnih nastupa.

Timothy Leary: Dopustite mi da kažem nekoliko riječi o tome što se događa u mom životu ovih dana. Radimo na biltenu koji ima okvirni datum objavljivanja 4. jula. Naziv je okvirno "Timothy Leary's Animations". Bilten će biti vrlo interaktivan. Tražit ćemo članke naših čitatelja za buduća izdanja.

Pitanje: Dr. Leary, što vas je nagnalo da uđete u softver? Takođe, neke priče vezane za elektroniku koje možete da nam ispričate iz 1960-ih?

Leary: Ono što me je potaknulo da se uključim u softver je interakcija između računara i ljudskog uma. Jezik računara dao mi je metaforu za kojom sam tragao prije 20 godina. Što se tiče [1960 -ih], to je "čitav drugi životni vijek". Sada smo u devedesetima. Zašto se osvrnuti?

P: Recite nam nešto o svom softveru za proširenje uma.

Leary: Razlog iza softvera za proširenje uma je osnaživanje pojedinca gdje je sve što se pojavi na ekranu ono što ste tamo stavili.

P: Što ste radili posljednjih godina, dr. Leary?

Leary: Na čelu sam dvije vrlo utjecajne kompanije za razvoj softvera. Jedan se zove FUTIQUE, a drugi je TELEKTRONIKA. Razvijamo 3-D elektroničko okruženje za Mac, IBM i nove 16-bitne uređaje za video igre. Cilj naše kompanije je učitavanje na kompaktne diskove gotovih potpuno namještenih domova, vrtova, pejzaža i bilo kojeg okruženja koje bi korisnik želio "podići".

P: Šta mislite o Libertarijanskoj stranci?

Leary: Oduševljen sam član Libertarijanske stranke. Mislim da se političari obje stranke, demokratske [i] republikanske, pokore najnižem zajedničkom imenitelju. Stoga je Newtonov zakon politike istinit: "U politici se ološ uzdiže do vrha." Iz tog razloga podržavam Libertarijansku stranku. Naš cilj je umanjiti, smanjiti, desetkovati moć države da se miješa u život pojedinca

P: Jeste li radili neke eksperimente s virtualnom stvarnošću?

Leary: Da, uključen sam u nekoliko grupa koje razvijaju TELEPRESENCE okruženja i elektronska okruženja. Vjerovatno držim više predavanja i demonstracija o VR -u od bilo koga na tom polju.

P: Kada će Mind Mirror biti dostupan za Macintosh?

Leary: Pokušavamo dobiti ažuriranje i reviziju Mind Mirror za Mac. Sa grafikom, grafikom i još više grafike! To je jedna od dvije velike tuge u mom životu koju Mind Mirror, moj divni program za glavu, nikada nije preveden za moje prijatelje koji koriste Mac.

P: Imate li softver [trenutno dostupan] za Macintosh?

Leary: Nemam funkcionalni Mac softver. Mogu, međutim, toplo preporučiti četiri Mac proizvoda koji pretvaraju ekran u ugodno, trodimenzionalno okruženje za život. Ti programi su 1) Virtualna Valerija, 2) Vjenčnik svemirskog broda, 3) Šaht i 4) Kosmički Osmo.

P: Šta je sa softverom na kojem trenutno radite?

Leary: Radimo, kao što sam već spomenuo, na razvoju 3-D programa koji će izvođačima omogućiti odabir i kretanje u elektroničkom okruženju. Naši programi su interaktivna kazališta u kojima se mala grupa može okupiti u svrhu obrazovanja, zabave i prosvjetljenja. Tri E-a elektronskog dvadeset prvog veka.

P: Dr. Leary, možete li prokomentirati pojavu virtualne stvarnosti? Neko je istakao da se ne može uporediti sa LSD -om. Vidite li ovu novu tehnologiju kao zamjenu za lijekove?

Leary: Ne. Virtualna stvarnost nije zamjena za organske psihodelične biljke i lijekove. Psihodelični lijekovi omogućuju vam da izađete iz ponavljajućih procesa riječi vašeg uma kako biste pokrenuli neograničene programe, direktorije i datoteke u svom mozgu. Sve je to, usput, tehničkobojno, multimedijsko i kreće se brzinom svjetlosti. S druge strane, elektronički uređaji poput novog računalno-grafičkog hardvera omogućuju vam odabir elektroničkih uzoraka i multimedijskog okruženja za izražavanje panorama vlastitog mozga.


LSD guru Timothy Leary bježi iz muške kolonije u San Luis Obispu prije 50 godina

Fotografija: Associated Press/Mark Terrill

Dokumentarni film Moja psihodelična ljubavna priča 2020. godine podsjeća da je prije pedeset godina prošlog septembra veliki svećenik LSD -a, proširenja uma i više svijesti, Timothy Leary, prošao - zapravo pobjegao - San Luis Obispo na svom putu u svijet, nešto što vrlo malo ljudi može tvrditi.

Leary je služio do 10 godina zatvora zbog posjedovanja marihuane u SLO-ovoj muškoj koloniji. Nijedan pojedinac nije bio odgovorniji za poticanje kontrakulture 1960-ih i 70-ih, šireći poruku koja otvara um iskustva LSD-a od obale do obale i diljem svijeta, od bivšeg kliničkog psihologa i predavača s Harvarda.

Nakon njegova bijega, globalna potraga koja je uslijedila trajala je 28 mjeseci i probila se među domaćim radikalima, evropskim aristokratima, ispostavu Crnih pantera u Alžiru, međunarodnom trgovcu oružjem, hipijima krijumčarenim hašišom iz Bratstva vječne ljubavi i tajnim agentima na četiri kontinenta . Izrazit govornik i uvjerljiv autor (Psihodelično iskustvo, Politika ekstaze, Zapisnici iz zatvora), Leary se tada smatrao ozbiljnom prijetnjom vladi sa svojim "uključivanjem, uključivanjem, odustajanjem", "siđi s uma" ”I„ razmislite sami, preispitajte autoritet ”mantre.

U vrijeme njegovog zatočeništva u SLO -u, Muška kolonija bila je minimalna sigurnosna ustanova i zatočenici su mogli otići ako su se usudili - na opasnost izdržavanja duže kazne ako ih uhvate. Ali Leary je učinio upravo to, iako nije jasno kako je to učinio. Leary je umro 1996. Prošlog oktobra napunio bi 100 godina.

Evo kako je Learyin bijeg igrao u medijima 1970. i 1973. godine.

Timothy Leary, zagovornik droga, odlazi iz zatvora na obali
14. septembra 1970

SAN LUIS OBISPO, Kalifornija, 13. septembra (UPI) - Dr. Timothy Leary napustio je danas zatvor minimalne sigurnosti u kojem je služio kaznu zbog posjedovanja marihuane. Leary, 45 godina, nestao je tokom noći iz Kalifornijske muške kolonije West, zatvora četiri milje zapadno od ovog grada, na pola puta između Los Angelesa i San Francisca, blizu pacifičke obale.

Njegova zatvorska odjeća-plava traper košulja i pantalone-i jedna od čarapa pronađeni su nekoliko sati kasnije u toaletu benzinske postaje oko dvije milje južno od zatvora na US 101, glavnom autoputu sjever-jug. Zatvor se nalazi na Kaliforniji 1 - "hipi autoputu" koji koriste autostoperi koji idu na sjever prema regiji Big Sur.

Leary, bivši instruktor Harvarda i rani zagovornik LSD -a, osuđen je prošle jeseni u Santa Ani u Kaliforniji i osuđen na šest mjeseci do 10 godina zatvora. On radi u zatvorskom uredu od kada je počinjen 18. marta.

Službenik benzinske postaje koji je pronašao Learyjevu odjeću rekao je vlastima da nije vidio Learyja niti bilo koga sumnjivog tokom cijele noćne smjene. Našao je odjeću u toaletu oko zore i obavijestio zvaničnike nakon što je čuo za bijeg. Činilo se da je presvlačenje ukazivalo na to da je Learyja sreo saučesnik izvan zatvora nakon što se popeo na ogradu od lanca dužine 12 stopa na vrhu dvije niti bodljikave žice.

Leary je osuđen nakon što su njega, njegovu suprugu Rosemary (34) i posinka Johna (20) zaustavili policajci na plaži Laguna 26. decembra 1968. godine.

Timothy Leary osuđen na bijeg do 5 godina
24. aprila 1973

SAN LUIS OBISPO, Kalifornija, 23. aprila (UPI) - Timothy Leary, kultista narkotika, osuđen je danas na šest mjeseci do pet godina zatvora zbog bijega iz kalifornijske muške kolonije 1970. godine. Sudac Vrhovnog suda Richard Harris naložio je da se nova zatvorska kazna izvrši uzastopno s Learyjevom prvobitnom kaznom po optužbi za marihuanu. To znači da Leary mora dovršiti prvu rečenicu, šest mjeseci do 10 godina, prije početka novog mandata.

Bruce Margolin, Learyjev odvjetnik, odmah je podnio obavijest da će se na osuđujuću presudu i kaznu uložiti žalba.


Timothy Leary o proširenju uma - POVIJEST

Za vas koji ne znate, Timothy Leary je bio američki psiholog i pisac, poznat po zagovaranju upotrebe LSD -a. Predavao je na Kalifornijskom univerzitetu, u Berkeleyu, a takođe i na Univerzitetu Harvard. Bio je čest korisnik LSD -a i vjerovao je u njegova svojstva širenja uma. U osnovi, on je bio G. Predsjednik Nixon ga je nazvao "najopasnijim čovjekom u Americi". Najvjerojatnije zato što je Leary smislio upečatljive fraze koje je omladina učinila trendovskim, poput "uključi se, uključi se, odustani" i "razmisli sam i dovedi u pitanje autoritet". Nakon ludog putovanja kroz život, umro je dan nakon Danainog 21. rođendana.


Da sam mogla na vrijeme izvaditi trudnu guzu iz autobusa, mogla sam ga i upoznati !! Naučio sam lekciju i kada je Neil Young navratio, otišao sam ga provjeriti.


2018-02-20 "Legenda o umu" Timothy Leary & amp LSD

21. februar 2018. #1 2018-02-21T02: 32


“Legend of a Mind” naziv je pjesme britanske rock grupe The Moody Blues iz 1968. godine. Riječ je o čovjeku po imenu Timothy Leary, bivšem instruktoru i istraživačkom psihologu Univerziteta Harvard. Šezdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća, Leary će postati zagovornik lijeka LSD- dietilamida lizergične kiseline- halucinogenog spoja koji mijenja svijest.

LSD, takođe poznat šezdesetih godina pod svojim žargonskim imenom, "kiselina", postao je u to doba nešto revolucionarno, kontra-kulturno. A Leary je, nakon nekog vremena kao sveučilišni istraživač koji je istraživao psihoterapijski potencijal lijeka, postao svojevrsni "piper" za rekreativnu i duhovnu upotrebu lijeka. Napisao bi desetak ili više knjiga o LSD -u i psihodeličnom iskustvu. S naknadnom medijskom pažnjom postao je nešto kao nacionalni guru mlađoj generaciji koja se tada pobunila protiv statusa quo. Tokom 1960-ih postao je poznat i po svojoj frazi "uključi se, uključi se, odustani", slogan koji je koristio za pozivanje ljudi da prihvate samoprosvjećenje putem psihodeličnih droga i širenja uma, dok "odustaju"-tj. slobodni od društvenih konvencija, dovodeći u pitanje autoritet i postajući nezavisni mislioci. Learyjevo objašnjenje njegovog slogana obično je bilo nijansiranije od onoga što su mediji često predlagali, tj. "Kamenovanje napuštanjem škole, posla itd."

U nastavku slijedi kratka povijest o Learyju i vremenima-od njegovih Harvardskih dana i LSD-a do prozelitizma do sukoba sa poznatim zabavljačem Art Linkletterom, američkim predsjednikom Richardom Nixonom i saveznom vladom u njihovim osudama o njemu i njihovim borbama oko droge korištenje, kao i Leary -jevo bježanje od zakona. Ali prvo, putem glazbenog uvoda kako bi se pokazalo kako je Leary utisnuo popularnu kulturu tog dana, povijest hit pjesme Moody Blues iz 1968., "Legend of A Mind", koja je poslužila za jačanje karijere Learyja i Moodyja Blues kao i jačanje Leary/LSD veze u kulturnoj povijesti.

“Legend of a Mind” snimili su Moody Blues u januaru 1968. godine, a prvi put je objavljen u julu 1968. godine na njihovom albumu, In Search of the Lost Chord, koji istražuje razne teme “traganja i otkrivanja”, uključujući one o duhovnom razvoju i više svesti. Američka narko scena već je počela izlaziti na površinu 1965-66, a Leary i LSD su do tada već bili u popularnoj štampi. “Legend of A Mind” naizgled je hvale vrijedna oda Learyju, koja mu predstavlja status sličan guruu, iako istočni mistični zvuk pjesme dočarava putopisnu, eteričnu kvalitetu, nudeći najbolji primjer psihodeličnog doba tog doba muzika.


Music Player
"Legenda o umu"
MoodyBlues-1968


Poznati po ranijem rock-n-roll hitu iz 1964., "Go Now", Moody Blues je prošao kroz neke kadrovske promjene do 1967-68 i počeo se kretati u novom muzičkom smjeru. Grupu su tada činili Justin Hayward, vokal i gitara John Lodge, bas, gitara, vokal Ray Thomas, flauta, udaraljke, usna harmonika, vokal Mike Pinder, klavijature, vokal i Graeme Edge, bubnjevi, udaraljke, vokal. Prethodni album grupe, Days of Future Passed, iz 1967. godine, proizveo je hit pjesme poput "Nights in White Satin" i "Tuesday Afternoon", označavajući ih kao rastući međunarodni rock bend.

Stil i zvuk Moodies -a u ovom trenutku njihove karijere imali su određenu orkestarsku, istočnjačku i mističnu kvalitetu, dijelom zbog upotrebe novog instrumenta na klavijaturi koji se zove Mellotron - instrument sposoban da duplicira orkestarske zvuke violina, flaute, horovi i drugo. Poseban zvuk Moodies -a u ovo doba dodala su dva indijska instrumenta - sitar i tambura - koje su tada selektivno koristile i druge grupe, poput Rolling Stonesa i Beatlesa. Sitar i tambura se čuju u filmovima U potrazi za izgubljenim akordom i "Legendi uma".

Ray Thomas, koji je napisao pjesmu, pjeva vokale, a ima i dugu, lijepu međuigra između flaute usred pjesme u 6:40 minuta. Taj dio pjesme sugerira trenutak pod utjecajem, dok lutajuća, zavodljiva pozadinska muzika jenjava i teče, konačno se pojavljujući s optimističnim završetkom i vjerojatno pozitivnim "putovanjem po zaljevu".

Pjesma Moody Blues, iako sama po sebi nikada ne spominje LSD, stavlja Learyja u središte svojih stihova, opisujući ga kao osobu koja ostavlja uzbuđenja na "putovanjima po zaljevu". No, više od teksta, muzički zvuk pjesme sugerira mistične i "triptične" efekte LSD -a. Zapravo, muzika Moodiesa uhvatila je psihodelično iskustvo možda jednako dobro, ako ne i bolje od bilo koje grupe tog doba.

Bruce Eder sa AllMusic.com, pišući profil Ray Thomasa, primjećuje:

… Thomas je predstavio himnu [MoodyBlues] koja definira psihodeličnu eru, „Legenda o umu”. Sa središnjom frazom "Timothy Leary je mrtav/O ne, on je vani, gleda unutra" i njenom razrađenom instrumentacijom (naletanje violončela i truljenje Mellotrona dijeleći svjetla reflektora s Thomasovom flautom), pjesma je postala središnji dio ambijenta psihodelične ere, i dio "soundtracka" pop kulture gotovo jednako kao i "Strawberry Fields Forever" ili "Penny Lane" Beatlesa, činjenica da je koristila ime dr. Timothy Learyja, nadaleko poznatog, nekad cijenjenog akademika koji je postao LSD guru, samo pojačao kredibilitet grupe kao ozbiljan psihodelični čin unutar kontrakulture tog perioda ...

"Legenda o umu"
Moody Blues
1968
Timothy Leary je mrtav.
Ne, ne, ne, ne, on je vani i gleda unutra.
Timothy Leary je mrtav.
Ne, ne, ne, ne, on je vani i gleda unutra.
On će upravljati svojim astralnim avionom,
Vozi vas na izlete po zalivu,
Vraća vas istog dana,
Timothy Leary. Timothy Leary.
Timothy Leary je mrtav.
Ne, ne, ne, ne, on je vani i gleda unutra.
Timothy Leary je mrtav.
Ne, ne, ne, ne, on je vani i gleda unutra.
On će upravljati svojim astralnim avionom,
Vozi vas na izlete po zalivu,
Vraća vas istog dana,
Timothy Leary. Timothy Leary.
Duž obale ćete ih čuti kako se hvale
O svjetlu kažu da sja tako jasno.
Zato podigni čašu, nazdravit ćemo
Malom čovjeku koji vam prodaje uzbuđenja
uz pristanište.
On će vas podići, srušit će vas,
Čvrsto će vam vratiti noge
na zemlji.
Leti tako visoko, tako se nisko zamahuje,
On tačno zna kojim će putem krenuti.
Timothy Leary. Timothy Leary.
On će vas podići, srušit će vas,
Posadit će vam noge na tlo.
Leteće tako visoko, tako će se spuštati.
Timothy Leary.
On će upravljati svojim astralnim avionom.
Odvest će vas na izlete po zaljevu.
Vratiće vas istog dana.
Timothy Leary. Timothy Leary.
Timothy Leary. Timothy Leary.
Timothy Leary.

1967. godine započelo je „Ljeto ljubavi“ okupljanjem svih vrsta mladih ljudi u San Franciscu, uzdižući pojam „hipi“ u popularnoj kulturi, kao i na narko sceni Haight-Ashbury.

Timothy Leary je do tada već nekoliko godina bio na slavi LSD -a, objavio je Psihodelično iskustvo 1964. sa kolegama Richardom Alpertom i Ralphom Metznerom i držao predavanja po cijeloj zemlji. U San Franciscu 1967., Leary je govorio na skupu "Human Be-In" u siječnju u parku Golden Gate (više o tome kasnije) gdje ga je oko 30.000 čulo kako nudi svoju filozofsku frazu "uključi se, uključi se, odustani".

Sljedećeg ljeta, Moody Blues je objavio In Search of the Lost Chord, koji je u julu 1968. zauzeo 23. mjesto američkih top lista, dostigavši ​​također 5. mjesto u Velikoj Britaniji. Tri pjesme s albuma donijele bi Moodyju više pažnje - “ Ride My See-Saw “,„ Voices in the Sky “i„ Legend of a Mind “. I sam album bi godinama bio hvaljen zbog svog muziciranja (33 instrumenta koje su koristili sami Moodies) i svojih mističnih i psihodeličnih kvaliteta.

Društveno-politički milje

Šezdesete godine, u međuvremenu, nastavile su se događati kulturne promjene u cijelom svijetu, potaknute baby boom-om nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. Do 1968. u Americi - godini predsjedničkih izbora - politički metež i grčevite promjene bile su u centru pažnje. Već ogorčeni tekućim protestima u Vijetnamskom ratu i nemirima zbog građanskih prava, atentati na Martina Luthera Kinga u aprilu i Bobbyja Kennedyja u julu dodali su još jada nacionalnoj bijedi. Zatim su uslijedili televizijski protesti i ulični neredi na Demokratskoj nacionalnoj konvenciji u Čikagu tog avgusta. Društveni protest, droga, alternativni stilovi života, istočnjački misticizam i poziv kontrakulture bili su dio scene. Mladi diljem svijeta tada su tražili objašnjenja i alternative. Pjesma "Timothy Leary" postala je dio muzičke kulise.

Iako se Learyju u početku nije sviđala pjesma Moody Blues, ubrzo ju je usvojio kao tematsku pjesmu tokom svojih predavanja. No, ironija je bila u tome što je Ray Thomas kasnije otkrio u intervjuu za Rolling Stone, pjesmu je napisao kao nešto kao da je "izvlačio pišavku iz njega", rekao je Thomas u intervjuu. "Vidio sam 'astralni avion' kao neki veselo ofarban mali dvokrilni avion: platite svoja dva dolara, a on će vas odvesti po zaljevu na mali let ..." Međutim, brojni slušaoci nikada nisu dobili na umu da "čuju" umjesto toga duhovni i istraživački sadržaj pjesme.

Justin Hayward iz Moody Bluesa, u intervjuu sa rock kritičarom Rogerom Catlinom iz novina Hartford Courant (CT) 1996. godine, dodao je svoje viđenje pjesme:

“Neki od nas u bendu - a to je bilo 1966., ’67 - prolazili smo kroz vlastita psihička iskustva, kao što je u to vrijeme bilo mnogo muzičara, vjerovatno predvođenih Beatlesima. Čitali smo mnogo podzemne štampe i čitali o Timu Learyju pa smo ga stavili u ... ”

„Pjesma je vrlo jezika verzija, vrlo drska engleska verzija onoga što smo mislili da će biti u San Franciscu u„ dane cvjetne moći “... Bio je to jezik u obraz, ali s pozadinom ozbiljnih značenje. To nam je nešto značilo. Koristili smo mnogo tadašnjih fraza, dijelova iz Tibetanske knjige mrtvih, govorili o astralnom planu i tako dalje, i to je odraz toga. ”

The Moody Blues - od kojih su neki pohađali LSD 1967. - nisu upoznali Timothyja Learyja do njihove prve turneje po SAD -u, kasnije 1968. "Upoznali smo Tima, i uopće ga nije uvrijedio naš tekst", rekao je Hayward. "Uživao je, a mi smo postali prijatelji godinama."

Klavijaturista Moody Bluesa, Mike Pinder, koji je aranžirao pjesmu, rekao je u intervjuu 1996. godine, da je redak, "Timothy Leary je mrtav / Oh, ne, izvana gleda unutra", zapravo bio veliki kompliment za Learyja. "To je bilo prilično metafizičko", objasnio je Pinder. “It used him as an out of body experience and looking back at life at a normal level.”

Others have also noted this line in a similar vein, that “Timothy Leary’s dead” had to do with “ego death” as experienced in transcendental meditations as instructed in Tibetan Book of the Dead. In fact, Leary’s 1964 book, written with colleagues Richard Alpert and Ralph Metzner – The Psychedelic Experience – also instructed its readers how to prepare for and take LSD and other such drugs and was subtitled, A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of The Dead.

“Those who didn’t get the message behind the song,” Pinder would say with a laugh during his 1996 interview, “were on the other outside looking in.” As for Leary, he never had a problem with the song, according to Pinder.

Regardless of how the lyrics are parsed for “Legend of A Mind,” or what they were intended to mean, the song is one of the classic examples of psychedelic music in that era – as are several other Moody Blues songs and the album, In Search of the Lost Chord. For millions in the late 1960s, the song was taken at face value, as part of the culture.

“Legend of A Mind” certainly made Leary more of a pop star than he already was at the time, and kept his name tied to that era thereafter.

For the Moody Blues, “Legend of a Mind,” proved to be one of their most popular numbers, especially in concerts stretching over some 35 years.

And apart from the song’s composition and history, there is, of course, a lot more to the legend of Timothy Leary and LSD than the Moody Blues tune. That part of the story is next.


From Resistance to Renaissance: The Legacy of Dr. Timothy Leary

Approximately fifty years ago, Dr. Timothy Leary told the world’s younger generations that they had “ been born into an insane asylum.” The good news was that it was “simple and obvious to take advantage of the insanity around you to make your escape.” In the mid-1960s, Dr. Leary’s attitude toward American society in general, and specifically his faith in the therapeutic potentials of psychedelic drugs caused the psychologist, psychedelic researcher, lecturer, advocate for alternative lifestyles, and author to be dismissed from his position at Harvard University, ridiculed by his peers, and relentlessly targeted by an American government desperate to discredit him.

Branded “the most dangerous man in America” by Richard Nixon, Dr. Leary believed his problems stemmed from the fact that he was “in the unfortunate position of being twenty years ahead of my time.” His estimation may have been a little less than accurate. Socially, politically, and spiritually he was light years ahead of the status quo. Yet in 2019, the mention of his name still evokes nervous laughter as well as a host of other negative reactions from young and old alike who know nothing about him except that he advocated the use of LSD, and how could such a person be anything but a crackpot, a charlatan, and a criminal?

Was Timothy Leary’s position on psychedelic drugs the main reason that the author of thirty books and four hundred research papers, articles, and essays was considered such a threat to mainstream society during the 1960s? From their standpoint, advising young America to “turn on, tune in, drop out” was recommending the reckless use of psychedelic drugs, and the abandonment of family, society, morals, education, work, and every other responsibility. Yet as frightening as this misinterpretation sounded at face value, the real meaning of Dr. Leary’s misrepresented words posed a much bigger challenge to the normalcy of established society. What he was actually telling young people to do was to look within themselves, discover their own divinity, and detach themselves from the constrictions of social and material struggles. Mainstream America had every reason to worry.

In his 1966 recording, Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out, Dr. Leary defined turning on as looking within, finding wisdom, and becoming aware of different levels of consciousness. He likened it to a form of sensitivity training. Young people were encouraged to turn their parents on as well — not with drugs, but by dialoguing with them, and helping them open up to their own possibilities. U svojoj knjizi, Politics of Ecstasy, he advised parents to “sit down with a youngster and relax and tune into a new theme” because “the best way for any parent to dissolve fear and develop trust in the youngsters” was to ask them about their music, their philosophy, and benefit from “their timeless point of view.”

To tune in, he explained, was to begin to invest one’s internal energy in a harmonious exchange with the external environment. Everyone needed to find his or her own divinity, move out of old patterns, and refashion their physical surroundings into external representations of who they really were. And the way to drop out was to “lovingly, gracefully detach yourself from the insane rituals and social pressures which surround you. Leave all situations and relationships that do not make sense to you” but remain aware that “you cannot drop out externally until you have detached yourself internally.”

One can imagine that in 2019, these recommendations still wouldn’t be easily digested by some of the powers that be, but in the late 1960s, what horrified the old order the most about the man who said his desire in life was “to expand and elevate the consciousness of the whole human race” was his advice to “drop out of the old man’s game.” In a talk given at UCLA in January 1967, when resistance to the Vietnam War was gaining momentum, Timothy Leary cautioned students against the “menopausal mentality” that made old men send younger ones out to die in wars. He told them, “Men seek external power when they’ve lost the internal power.”

While the establishment argued that dropping out was nothing more than an escape, Dr. Leary insisted it was anything but a withdrawal from reality. The real addictive process was created by the society that rewarded conformity and compliance with bigger salaries, new cars, larger homes, and coveted promotions. Refusing to play the game anymore was the harder choice. The true dropouts had to be creative. They had to figure out what life was about, and what had meaning for them, and then find lifestyles and means of making a living that did not compromise their principles. “As you drop out,” Dr. Leary predicted, “you will find that you do nothing which is not an act of beauty.”

Did this formula for escaping the “conforming, rote lockstep which we call American society” have to include the use of psychedelic drugs? Couldn’t the expansion of conscious be achieved without chemicals? And why did Timothy Leary, a man approaching the age of fifty in the late 1960s focus almost exclusively on the younger generation as if there were an age limit on the ability to accept change? Wasn’t he himself proof enough that young people were not the only ones capable of being receptive to new ideas? Neuroethology, the study of the effects of the nervous system on animal behavior and its role in solving evolutionary problems, provides some insight and possibly some answers to these questions. Ethology was a science that fascinated Dr. Leary. He found the process of psychological imprinting particularly intriguing.

During a talk given at Cooper Union in 1964, Dr. Leary explained the phenomenon of psychological imprinting. This biochemical programming occurs within a critical period when the nervous system is open to registering certain external stimuli. For some species, the critical period may last for only hours after birth, while for others it may last for days. Imprinting results in life-long irreversible conditioning. Once the critical period is over, imprinting can no longer take place. To illustrate this phenomenon, Dr. Leary described an experiment involving newborn ducklings that were shown a moving orange basketball instead of a mother duck. Wherever the basketball was rolled along the floor, the ducks followed. Once the critical period was over, researchers gave the ducklings the opportunity to interact with a live mother duck. They ignored her, and continued to follow the basketball. Dr. Leary described the result of this experiment as both “amusing”, and “terrifying.” The mind, he added, will go to great lengths to rationalize and protect early accidental imprints. And then he asked his audience, “What accidental orange basketballs have you and I been exposed to early in life??”

Dr. Leary theorized that each generation harassed and persecuted “exactly those men that succeeding generations will revere” due to reasons that were purely neurological. The adult nervous system could not tolerate being challenged by ideas and methods that went against the human being’s dependence upon the imprinted symbol system of his society. He believed it took one generation for new ideas to become accepted.

In Politics of Ecstasy, Dr. Leary described the young people of the 1960s as “different” in that they were not destined to “grow up like Mom and Dad.” He insisted this could not merely be attributed to any sociological trends. It was an “evolutionary lurch.” These young people deserved the support of their elders rather than their scorn. This younger generation was also open to the use of psychedelic drugs while their parents’ generation found it impossible to accept the idea of using drugs to expand their consciousness. Middle-aged and older adults were conditioned to associate only two things with drugs: “doctor-disease” and “dope fiend-crime.”

Since psychological imprinting is irreversible, and can occur only during the first few days of life, what could be done to remedy the effects of negative imprints, or the consequences of the absence of imprinting? In his research, Timothy Leary concluded psychedelic drugs played a role in postponing or influencing imprinting by delaying the focus that resulted in the imprinting process. Under the influence of LSD, commitments to past external imprints were temporarily lost.

Dr. Leary described the human brain as a “camera with literally billions of lenses” that continuously processed unfathomable amounts of information. During their lifetimes, human beings interpreted experiences by the same old imprint “snapshots” imposed upon them directly after birth. Psychedelic re-imprinting could temporarily suspend these snapshots and allow new snapshots to “come to rest”. However, the old imprint would not be totally lost due to years of conditioning, and the rituals associated with them. Reprogramming the nervous system with LSD required at least five to eight days between doses. This refractory period allowed the new snapshots sufficient time to “harden.”

Dr. Leary’s personal experience with psychedelics began in 1960 with psilocybin, the naturally occurring compound produced by over two hundred species of mushrooms. “I learned more about psychology, about the human mind, about the human situation in the five hours after eating these mushrooms,” he said, “than I had learned studying and doing research, and treating people in psychotherapy.” During a television interview on The Merv Griffin Show in 1966, Dr. Leary explained his enthusiasm concerning the potentials of psychedelic drugs was fueled by his dissatisfaction with modern psychology. After working in his chosen field for fifteen years, he arrived at “the sorry conclusion that psychology wasn’t doing much to solve the emotional or mental problems of the human race, particularly the American people.” He told his host he had taken LSD over three hundred times.

Timothy Leary maintained that the alteration of consciousness could only be studied from within. Observing the effects of psychedelic drugs from the outside would yield negligible results. “No more dosing up the passive subjects.” The scientist had to be willing to take the “magic molecule” himself. In the early 1960s, his employer, Harvard University, disagreed with this strategy. Between 1960 and 1962, Dr. Leary and his research partner, Dr. Richard Alpert, conducted a series of experiments on volunteers to determine the psychological effects of psilocybin. The Harvard Psilocybin Project came to an end for a number of reasons, none the least of which was the fact that the researchers conducted their experiments while they themselves were under the influence of psychedelics. The university charged Drs. Leary and Alpert with not following the institution’s established research protocols, and accused them of promoting the recreational use of psychedelic drugs. Both were dismissed from their positions at Harvard.

As LSD gained popularity and notoriety in the world outside of medical research (partially because of the Harvard research project scandal), the Swiss chemical researcher who discovered it in 1938 began referring to the drug as “my problem child.” While Albert Hofmann was not surprised that the substance which had such profound effects on mental perception was of interest to those outside of medical science, he never imagined that LSD would become a recreational drug. Hofmann was alarmed by its “careless, medically unsupervised use,” but held fast to his belief that when it was used wisely under proper medical supervision, “this problem child could become a wonder child.”

Sandoz Laboratories, where Hofmann did his research, had concerns of their own. For nearly twenty years, they had supplied LSD, free of charge, to qualified researchers throughout the world. In a letter issued in August 1965, the director of the pharmaceutical department at Sandoz said the company would stop distributing the drug. Like Albert Hofmann, they said they could not have “envisaged” its “exploitation.” They had made the patented drug available to clinical researchers because the initial experiments conducted on animals and humans at Sandoz had “pointed to the important role that this substance could play as an investigational tool in neurological research and in psychiatry.”

In spite of the American government’s attempts to discredit, stop, and silence him, Timothy Leary continued to be a strong advocate for psychedelic research. In 1966, he went to Washington D.C. to testify as an expert witness before a senate subcommittee investigating recreational drug use among American young people. Rather than prohibiting psychedelics, he recommended more studies, and suggested legislation requiring LSD users to be trained licensed adults. When Ted Kennedy belittled his testimony and asked him if LSD was dangerous, Dr. Leary reminded the senator that cars were dangerous too, if they weren’t used properly.

In October 1968, Congress passed the Staggers-Dodd Bill as an amendment of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Possession of LSD became a federal crime. To the old order for whom psychedelics represented the counterculture, radicalism, and a threat to their power, it was imperative to paint Dr. Leary as a quack and a menace irresponsibly handing out LSD and catastrophic advice to the youth of America.

During his Cooper Union talk in 1964, Dr. Leary had warned that there was no room for reckless administration of psychedelics. “You should be very careful with whom you take LSD, and where you take LSD, and you should be very well-prepared…” In an interview for Playboy Magazine in 1966, when he was asked what he thought of casual sex catalyzed by the use of LSD he replied, “Nothing good can happen with LSD if it’s used crudely, or for power or manipulative purposes.” In Politics of Ecstasy he wrote, “The danger of LSD is not physical or psychological, but social-political… The political and ethical controversies over psychedelic plants are caused by our ignorance about what these substances do… The greatest enemies of mankind are ignorance and fear. What are the protections? Accurate information openly shared, and calm courageous response to the evidence.”

The real reason the establishment considered LSD dangerous, he told students at UCLA in 1967, was because it worked. They feared it because “it throws into different perspective the rituals and the orthodoxy and the structure of the time.” According to Dr. Leary, there had always been (and always would be) two societies “uneasily” sharing this planet — “the overground and the underground.” The latter were those alienated from the established power either by deprivation or by choice. Pressure from that underground “builds up gradually over decades.”

By the second half of the 1960s, that underground pressure was giving birth to a cultural revolution. Mainstream Americans were not prepared for this, and they were not prepared to consider the possibility that the drug laws of the time might be in violation of the 1st and 5th Amendments. And referring to LSD as a “sacrament” did little to boost Dr. Leary’s popularity with the establishment. Even more distressing to the old order was his revelation that God wanted intelligence from human beings, rather than mere obedience. Gaining more intelligence led human beings to become more religious because “the smarter you are, the more you wanna know who did it!”

Although Timothy Leary had no qualms about telling Americans young and old that any laws violating the sanctity of the human body needed to be dismissed, he was not insinuating that those who used consciousness-expanding drugs irresponsibly were above the law. “Can you prevent your fellow man from altering his consciousness if he thereby poses a threat to others or to the harmonious development of society? Yes… but the burden of proof… must be on society.” He said, “If the things I put in me lead me to rush around outside disturbing Caesar’s order, arrest me. If the things I put in my body cause me to be untidy or to break laws out there, I have no defense. There are plenty of laws to protect public decorum and highway / byway safety… but in the sanctity of my own home with my family, my co-religionists… that’s our business.”

In 1970, Timothy Leary was sentenced to twenty years in prison for the possession of a small amount of marijuana, due in part to President Nixon’s war on drugs which increased the penalties and the number of incarcerations for drug offenders. After serving six months, he escaped. When he was recaptured and brought back to California in 1973, he was placed in solitary confinement and more time was added to his sentence. In 1976, almost two years after Nixon’s resignation, Dr. Leary was released from prison by order of Governor Jerry Brown. Two decades later, Nixon’s former domestic policy chief, John Ehrlichman, admitted the war on drugs had in actuality been Nixon’s private war on anti-Vietnam War leftists, the counterculture, and black Americans. He wanted mainstream America to associate all war resistors and hippies with LSD and marijuana, and all black Americans with heroin.

Until his death from prostate cancer in 1996, Dr. Leary continued to lecture, debate, write, and take psychedelic drugs. He also continued to insist that the government had no right to tell citizens what to do with their bodies and minds. He stressed that what he was advocating was “Think for yourself and question authority,” and not the idea that chemicals were the only keys to an open mind.

More than half a century has passed since Timothy Leary was dismissed from Harvard University and an entire generation of young Americans became aware of LSD. For the children and the grandchildren of the 1960s cultural revolution, the debate continues and sharply conflicting opinions abound. The man who once encouraged the planet to turn on, tune in, and drop out has been called brilliant, evil, a prophet, a charlatan, a philosopher, a crackpot, dangerous, holy, a criminal, a saint. To this day, some blame him for causing psychedelics to become discredited in the eyes of the American government and medical science. The problem child that Albert Hofmann had hoped would become a wonder child remains an orphan. In 1970, the DEA classified LSD and all psychedelics as Schedule 1 drugs, chemical substances with no accepted medical use in treatment, high potentials for abuse, and unsafe to administer even under medical supervision. Psychedelic research came close to a standstill for the following two decades, but began to slowly pick up again during the 1990s. Studies conducted to determine the therapeutic effects of psychedelics on anxiety associated with life-threatening illnesses, anxiety in autistic adults, depression, cluster headaches, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcoholism, opiate addiction, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders have yielded promising results warranting further research.

It has taken far longer than the “one generation” Timothy Leary predicted would be necessary for the true potentials of psychedelic drugs to be recognized and accepted by mainstream society, but as Aldous Huxley once observed, facts cannot be ignored out of existence. Thanks to meticulous scientific research and education, we are learning that psychedelics do indeed show the potential to alleviate some aspects of physical and mental suffering. Americans young and old are gradually changing their minds about consciousness altering drugs.

MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies), The Beckley Foundation, Heffter Research Institute, ICEERS (International Center for Ethnobotanical Education Research), and Clusterbusters are among the many organizations working worldwide to change perceptions of psychedelic drugs, and reform drug laws. Determined to find new and more effective treatments for the debilitating pain of cluster headaches, advocates from Clusterbusters convinced the administration at Harvard Medical School to undertake their first psychedelic research project in forty years. The results of their clinical study which appeared in the peer-reviewed medical journal Neurology in 2006 were positive, and resulted in further studies involving the use of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headaches.

Founded in 1986, MAPS was established for the purpose of conducting ethical research in protected environments to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of psychedelic drugs and marijuana with the goal of making these drugs legally available for patients to safely benefit from. In 2018, MAPS raised 27 million dollars for FDA phase 3 research into MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Researchers believe the drug may be approved for use in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy by 2021.

The man who encouraged a generation of young people to think for themselves and question their leaders also advised them to “take responsibility for making your own life beautiful.” The universe, according to Dr. Leary, is an “intelligence test” and “the more you use your head, the more in tune you get with the original purpose, design, and goal of the genetic code” and “if there’s anything the genetic code seems to want, it’s to keep itself going.”

In any decade, an individual declaring himself a member of “an ancient trade union of spiritual teachers” working toward expanding and elevating the consciousness of the whole human race would, at best, be the object of ridicule. During the 1960s, overground America’s disdain for the underground outcast they labeled an insane dangerous drug guru manifested itself in a lot more than simple ridicule. Now the notion that parents need to communicate with their youngsters and be a source of emotional support to dissolve fear and establish trust is hardly a revolutionary idea. It’s common sense. Today, challenging aspects of society that are unacceptable, and striving to live in a harmonious exchange with the environment are not just counterculture values. And the desire to pursue a creative meaningful beautiful life is not perceived as a threat to social order.

Because of his enthusiasm for psychedelic drugs, and his belief that each of us is responsible for creating his or her own reality, Timothy Leary will always be a controversial and revolutionary figure, lauded and reviled. To Richard Nixon, the paranoid president who saw enemies everywhere he looked, Dr. Leary was indeed a dangerous man. At the other end of the spectrum, the ethnobotanist and lecturer Terence McKenna once described Dr. Leary as “a guy who’s probably made more people happy, arguably, than anyone else in history.” Both men were right, of course, because the truth is often found somewhere in between two extremes. And truth is always stranger than fiction.


Timothy Leary Archives

Tim’s family, friends, collaborators, volunteers, and other varieties.

This list is very incomplete and very much in progress. Please let us know if you should be on this list.

    (Advisory Board) (Trustee, Futique Trust) (Leary.com and Retinalogic) (Mind Mirror Co-Developer/Publisher) (Curator, Digibarn Computer Museum, Virtual Worlds
    Pioneer, and agent for the Futique Trust) (Mind Mirror Developer) (Author/Researcher/Collaborator) (Digital Photography Specialist) (Leary.com and Retinalogic) (Tim’s Personal Archivist and Bibliographer) (Advisory Board) (Advisory Board, Tim’s Godson) (Collaborator/Friend) (Tim’s Son) (Personal Assistant/Collaborator/Friend and More!) (Coordinator/Promotion) (Psychologist/Researcher/Collaborator) (Digital Librarian/Webmaster) (Team Tim Volunteer) (Author, Collaborator, Friend of Tim) (Trustee) (Editor, Leary On Drugs) (Author, Advisory Board)

John Perry Barlow Bio Coming Soon!

Denis Berry (Trustee) Bio Coming Soon!

Joey Cavella (original Retinalogic and Leary.com teams) Joey has been called one of the “pioneers of internet design,” as he was one of the original members of the Leary.com web development team, which was chosen as People magazine’s “Cool Site of the Year,” in 1996, and also launched web sites such as nerve.com (which won a webby award in 2000) and sonicnet.com.

After releasing “How To Operate Your Brain,” a video Joey and his brother Chris Graves made with Timothy in 1993, the team turned to the web. At Dr. Leary’s request Joey and Chris moved their studio into Tim’s garage and began work scanning Timothy’s archives and building Timothy’s official home on the web, leary.com.

Leary.com became a cultural phenomenon when Tim announced a live, online “de-animation.” The site was one of the first websites to introduce a three-dimensional site navigation. With photographs of Dr. Leary’s actual house, a virtual walkthrough of the house was created where books and archived documents could be found in the library, videos on the tv etc. (Leary.com now, Leary.com then)

Joey is now a freelance web developer in New York.

Ed Craig (Mind Mirror Co-Developer/Publisher) Edward Craig is publishing Timothy Leary’s Mind Mirror on the Web, in partnership with the original software developers, Bob Dietz and Peter Van den Bleemt.

Edward met Timothy Leary in 1985, when Timothy performed a demonstration of Mind Mirror at a software store Edward managed. Pursuant to a lifelong interest in psychology and software applications, he is pleased to offer Mind Mirror to the public in a new, multi-user, social-networked version with advanced database and data modeling capabilities.

Ed’s major career experience has been in the computer products and Internet industries, where he has worked with storefront retailers, systems integrators, support and support vendors, distributors, publishers, and manufacturers. He founded Quicksilver Mirror LLC to publish innovative software for psychological applications, such as Mind Mirror.

Bruce Damer (Curator, Digibarn Computer Museum, Virtual Worlds
Pioneer, and agent for the Futique Trust) Bruce Damer is a leading expert in the subject of Avatars, the representation of people in 2D and 3D graphical Cyberspace worlds. In the mid 1990s he formed the Contact Consortium, the first organization and conference dedicated to the subject and authored the first book “Avatars!”.

In the past several years Bruce has headed up DigitalSpace, a company which now provides NASA with 3D modeling and visualization for the future of space exploration. Bruce and his wife Galen Brandt live on a farm in the Santa Cruz Mountains where they host a hippie bus art and music studio and stage performances, raise pot bellied pigs and house a large vintage computer collection in their barn called the DigiBarn Computer Museum.

Bob Dietz (Mind Mirror Developer) Bio coming soon!

Robert Forte (Author/Researcher/Collaborator) Robert Forte studied the history and psychology of religion at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago and has taught at the University of California Santa Cruz. He served on the board of directors of the Albert Hofmann Foundation, and is the editor of Entheogens and the Future of Religion and Timothy Leary: Outside Looking In.

J.P. Goguen Bio Coming Soon!

Chris Graves (original Retinalogic and Leary.com teams) Chris Graves was a founding member of the Leary.com web development team and the Retinalogic video production team. He worked with Joey Cavella, Camilla Grace, and Joi Ito, with funding from Digital Garage, to create the award winning 1996 website that was the first of its kind in so many ways. (Leary.com now, Leary.com then)

Michael Horowitz (Tim’s Personal Archivist and Bibliographer) Michael co-founded the Fitz Hugh Ludlow Memorial Library (FHLML on wikipedia), the world’s first library exclusively devoted to psychoactive plants and drugs. He and his partner, Cynthia Palmer, edited two anthologies: Moksha: Aldous Huxley’s Writings on Psychedelics and Visionary Experience, and Sisters of the Extreme: Women’s Writings on the Drug Experience.

Michael operates Flashback Books, a mail-order business specializing in rare drug literature and the 󈨀s counterculture. Michael first met Timothy in 1970, and was his archivist, bibliographer, editor and friend. He and Vicki Marshall edited Leary’s late writings and talks, Chaos & Cyber Culture, and, with Karen Walls and Billy Smith, An Annotated Bibliography of Timothy Leary.

Todd Huffman (Advisory Board) Todd Huffman is a technologist and lifelong Leary admirer, manifesting in his involvement in various Leary-esque projects. He has done research on the nature of cognition and sensory perception, is an advisor to the life-extension research of the Methuselah Foundation, contributed to the Whole Brain Emulation Roadmap, worked in cryonics, develops new hypertextualization interfaces, and promotes the free exchange of ideas with the BIL Conference.

Joi Ito (Advisory Board, Tim’s Godson) Bio Coming Soon!

Ron Lawrence (Collaborator/Friend) Independent Macintosh consultant, musician, filmmaker Timothy’s friend and Macintosh tutor, mentor assistant and personal handyman. Worked extensively with Vicki Marshall in helping to restart, organize and maintain the Leary archives.

Co-owned, with Vicki Marshall, a small Macintosh consulting and desktop publishing company called Knoware, which published “Timothy Leary’s Greatest Hits Vol. 1” in 1990 and made Leary publication, software and music available by mail order (1990-2000).

Note: Although Tim always referred to Zach as his “son,” Zach was technically Tim’s stepson. Zach’s mother, Barbara Chase, married Tim in 1977, when Zach was 4 years old.

Raised on an Apple II+ and lots of video games, Zach found himself immersed in all things digital at a very young age, thanks to Tim’s early vision of computers and their effect on human potential.

After the mid 90s success that was Leary.com, Zach went on to successful career in the digital marketing arts. Part of Zach’s initial journey found him working in the middle of some great “dot- bombs” including Whatshothow.com and iFuse.com. Soon after, Zach spent many years at the digital marketing helm for such brands as Apple, Playboy, Daimler/Chrysler, Fox, Mars Inc., and Energizer.

After 4 years of working on Apple at TBWAChiatDay, Zach took his talents to an entirely new venue – the music business. The complex 21st century music business is in a constant state of reinvention which, is exactly what Zach was looking for. His deep love for music, technology and marketing resulted in co-founding an independent marketing company called PKZ, Inc. PKZ is set up to service bands with their marketing needs either in the label structure or out their first clients are Coldplay and Depeche Mode.

Zach studied Jazz at the Musicians Institute in Hollywood and the Berklee College of Music in Boston.

Vicki Marshall (Personal Assistant, Collaborator, Friend and More!) Chaos manager, writer, editor co-owner of a small Macintosh consulting and desktop publishing company called KnoWare, which published “Timothy Leary’s Greatest Hits Vol. 1” in 1990 and made Leary publications and software available by mail order (1990-2000) originator of Timothy’s “Just Say KNOW” campaign served as Timothy’s editor, collaborator, archivist (1988-2000), administrative coordinator, personal assistant and primary health-care coordinator served as administrative coordinator for the Leary Estate and Futique Trust (1996-2000). Organized the entire Leary archives into a comprehensive database and catalog which is still in use today.

Dean Metzger (Coordinator/Promotion) Dean spent his twenties as a successful business man but became dissatisfied with working for money only. So, in 1974, he retired from classical business, traveled and studied various disciplines, and specialized in having fun for ten years.

Dean produced and directed the very first Harley Davidson Television Commercials. His next film project involved major Rock and Roll stars and a unique treatment for heroin addiction. As a result of the film, Dean had the opportunity to participate in the field of medical research. He would stay on that project for ten years. From there he entered the field of biophysics, where he stayed for the next ten years.

Due to a serious accident, he became a talk show producer/host on KNRY in Monterey CA. While in Monterey, he met Richard Andolesen, the owner and curator of the John Steinbeck Museum, in Pacific Grove CA. For the next nine years, Dean worked on various projects for the Museum and was left in control of the infrastructure of the museum after Dr. Andolesens passing.

He has been working with the estate for the last four years helping in various areas of development.

Ralph Metzner (Psychologist/Researcher/Collaborator) Bio coming soon! Lisa Rein (Digital Librarian/Webmaster) Lisa Rein is the Digital Librarian for the Timothy Leary Futique Trust. In 1995, while Lisa was visiting Tim in his home, he told Lisa his dream of having his personal archives digitized, searchable, and accessible to everyone online. Now, almost 12 years after Tim’s death, she is working with the Futique Trust to fulfill Tim’s dream.

Lisa was the Text and Graphics Editor for one of Tim’s last published works, the graphic novel “Surfing the Conscious Nets.” She is a co-founder of Creative Commons, and was its first CTO. She received her BA and MA from San Francisco State’s Broadcast Communication Electronic Arts Department, and is a frequent lecturer there on copyright, fair use, social networking, web media and culture, digital archiving, virtual worlds and artificial intelligence.

Andrew Rondeau Andrew was born into Catholic family in Central Massachusetts. Starting at a young age, he always had a fascination with technology especially computers. With a little help from his father, Andrew taught himself to program shortly before his 11th birthday. As a teenager, Andrew ran a popular dial-up BBS called “The Z” in Worcester Massachusetts. The discussions on his BBS and others prompted him to learn to see through propaganda and how establishments manipulate us into believing misrepresentations to be true. This lead Andrew to study the flaws in the American drug war and also invoked his disillusion with contemporary American religion.

Andrew indulged his interests in technology, religion, and fact seeking when he entered college at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He earned a B.S. in Computer Science, built his first set of speakers, experimented with meditation, and alternate techniques of quickly inducing a meditative state of mind.
After college, Andrew came to appreciate Tim’s life when he read “Start Your Own Religion” and “Musings on Human Metamorphosis.” He seeks to facilitate online communities through his current project, http://asumaku.com and real-life communities of people who wish to establish shared culture and tradition.

Douglas Rushkoff (Author, Collaborator, Friend of Tim) Douglas Rushkoff is the author of a dozen best-selling books on media, technology, and society, including “Media Virus,” “Cyberia,” and “Life Inc.”

He has hosted Frontline documentaries, written hundreds of articles, teaches Media Studies at the New School and now has his own radio show, The Media Squat on WFMU.

Douglas and Tim became friends in the 1980’s, working together on articles about virtual reality and consciousness in cyberspace. Douglas acted as Tim’s literary agent in order to keep some funds coming into the house during the last year of Tim’s life, and put together the project “Design for Dying.”

Donna Scott (Trustee) Bio Coming Soon!

Hassan I Sirius (Editor, Leary On Drugs) Hassan I Sirius is a 32-year-old San Franciscan who edited “Leary On Drugs,” a new collection from Re/Search Publications. . In another life, he works for an investment banking firm. His bosses do not suspect his alternative predilections.

Hassan worked as a freelance editor in his early twenties. He stole his nom de guerre from one of RU Sirius’s books, in which RU referred to “my great and terrible brother Hassan I Sirius.”

R.U. Sirius (Author, Advisory Board Member) RU Sirius is former Editor-In-Chief of the legendary counter/technoculture magazine, Mondo 2000 and current editor of h+, a pdf based magazine published by Humanity+.

He coauthored Design For Dying with Timothy Leary and wrote an introduction for the recent Re/Search release, “Leary On Drugs.” He also wrote an intro for one of the many reissues of Dr. Leary’s “The Politics of Ecstasy.”

He has written hundreds of articles for mainstream and alternative publications and has been a columnist for ARTFORUM International, San Francisco Examiner, and Wired News. Other books include “Mondo 2000: A User’s Guide to the New Edge” with Rudy Rucker “Cyberpunk Handbook” with St. Jude “Counterculture Through The Ages” with Dan Joy and True Mutations: Conversations on the Edge of Science, Technology and Consciousness.”


Timothy Leary

“Six words: drop out, turn on, then come back and tune it in. and then drop out again, and turn on, and tune it back in. it's a rhythm. most of us think God made this universe in nature-subject object-predicate sentences. turn on, tune in, drop out. period, end of paragraph. Turn the page. it's all a rhythm. it's all a beat. You turn on, you find it inside, and then you have to come back (since you can't stay high all the time) and you have to build a better model. But don't get caught - don't get hooked - don't get attracted by the thing you're building, cause. you gotta drop out again. It's a cycle. Turn on, tune in, drop out. Keep it going, keep it going. the nervous system works that way. gotta keep it flowing, keep it flowing. ”


Pogledajte video: MIT Debate on LSD: Dr. Jerry Lettvin + Dr. Timothy Leary - November 1967 (Maj 2022).