Terence


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Terence je rođen u Kartagini (Afrika) oko 190. godine prije nove ere. Prevezen je u Rim kao rob. Njegov gospodar, Terentius Lucanus, bio je toliko impresioniran inteligencijom svog novog roba da ga je obrazovao, a zatim i oslobodio.

Terence je napisao šest drama: Adelphoe (Braća), Andria (Djevojka iz Androsa), Eunuh, Heauton Timorumenos (Samomučitelj), Hecyra (Svekrva) i Phormio.

Iako u to vrijeme nisu bili jako popularni, Terence se danas smatra jednim od najvažnijih pisaca Rimskog carstva. Njegovo djelo hvalili su Scipion Aemilianus Africanus i Laelius Gaius, ali samo jedna od njegovih drama, Eunuh, uživao je u uspjehu tokom svog života.

Prema Diani Bowder: "Njegove (Terence) vrlo složene intrige, suptilne studije emocionalnih, porodičnih, pa čak i obrazovnih pitanja, neizmjerno elegantna verbalna karakterizacija, jurnjava i trezvena upotreba jezika, polemički i samosudski prolozi, predanost komičnoj ironiji kao njegov glavni oblik humora i napuštanje velikog dijela muzike i pjesme toliko važnih za Plauta vjerovatno će ga koštati naklonosti javnosti. "

Terenceov rad odražava humanitas pogled na život (uvjerenje da svi ljudi, bez obzira na rasu ili nacionalnost, trebali biti prijatelji).

Terence je umro 159. prije Krista.

Čovjek koji se drži puta dužnosti kroz strah od kazne bit će pošten sve dok misli da će biti otkriven. Ako misli da može pobjeći s nečim otkrivenim, vratit će se svojim trikovima. Ali čovjek koji je za vas vezan naklonošću jedva čeka da se prema vama ophodi onako kako se vi ponašate prema njemu, bez obzira jeste li tu ili ne ... Čovjek koji to ne može učiniti, trebao bi priznati da ne može kontrolirati djecu.


Terence V. McIntosh

Terence McIntosh je stručnjak za ranu modernu Njemačku, posebno za njenu društvenu, političku, vjersku i ekonomsku historiju u sedamnaestom i osamnaestom stoljeću. Njegov trenutni projekt knjige, „Discipliniranje parohije: Božji poredak, prosvjetiteljstvo i luteranski kler u Njemačkoj, 1517–1806“, ispituje dinamiku kojom je promjenjiv niz društvenih, teoloških i intelektualnih snaga izazvao istaknute crkvenjake, vladare i sekularni mislioci da kritički ispitaju i značajno preobrate svrhu, opseg i prirodu luteranske crkvene discipline u ključnim trenucima u ranom novom vijeku.

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554A Pauli Murray Hall*
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*Iako Odsjek za historiju koristi naziv Pauli Murray Hall za našu zgradu, na službenim kartama ćete ga pronaći kao Hamilton Hall. Intelektualno nepošteno historijsko i arhivsko djelo Josepha Gregoire de Roulhaca Hamiltona promoviralo je nadmoć bijelaca. Nasuprot tome, Pauli Murray je objedinio neprikosnovene dokaze i analize u službi rasne i rodne ravnopravnosti. U julu 2020. godine svi odjeli smješteni u zgradi složili su se da usvoje naziv Pauli Murray Hall umjesto Hamilton Halla. Službeni zahtjev sa kancelarom je u toku. Za više informacija pogledajte ovdje.


U prahu, Terence

Uvod: Terence V. Powderly bio je čovjek koji je zaokupio pažnju javnosti kao političar i organizator rada na prijelazu u 20. stoljeće, posebno kao trostruki gradonačelnik Scrantona, PA i član

Vodstvo vitezova laburista. Tijekom svoje karijere oklijevao je pozivati ​​na štrajkove i dramatičnije radne aktivnosti, smatrajući da su neproduktivni i da stvaraju neprijatelje zakonom, policijom i medijima. Umjesto toga, Powderly radnički pokret nije vidio kao revoluciju, već kao zadružno bratstvo radnika. Njegove su se ideje kao katolika na mnogo načina slagale s tadašnjim učenjem, no mnogi su klerici odbacili Vitezove rada, radničku organizaciju s kojom je on najviše povezan.

Obrazovanje i karijera: Terence V. Powderly imao je osnovno obrazovanje od oko šest godina i počeo je raditi sa 13 godina. Sa 17 godina postao je šegrt mašinovođa i na kraju je pronašao posao u Scrantonu, PA, pridružujući se Međunarodnoj uniji strojara i kovača pet godina kasnije 1871. Još u mladosti bio je prepoznat po svojim spisateljskim i govorničkim sposobnostima, a godinu dana kasnije postao je lokalni velemajstor Workman i dopisni sekretar sindikata. 1873. izgubio je posao i uspio se zaposliti tek kao strojar 1875. godine, pa je zauvijek napustio teren 1877. godine.

Nakon ovog ranog radnog iskustva, njegova se karijera fokusirala uglavnom na politiku Pennsylvanije i Vitezove rada. Bio je gradonačelnik u Scrantonu, PA od 1878-1884. Postepeno je napredovao od člana do majstora Workman iz Scrantona, zatim dopisnog sekretara distriktne skupštine, i na kraju velikog majstora Workman u Vitezovima rada od 1874-1893. Uvijek onaj koji je imao različite interese, također bi studirao pravo i postao advokat, bio bi okružni zdravstveni službenik i postao bi dijelom vlasnik i upravnik trgovine mješovitom robom. Konačno, karijeru je završio radeći za saveznu vladu u oblasti imigracijske politike, provođenja i inspekcije.

Terence V. Powderly rođen je u Terence and Madge (Walsh) Powderly u industrijskoj zajednici Carbondale, PA, gdje je njegov otac osnovao vlastiti rudnik uglja. Mladi Terry bio je kratkovidno dijete koje je često bolovalo i bilo je gluho na jedno uho zbog žute groznice. Nesposoban u sportu i često nosio ručne membone, mladi Powderly morao se sam boriti protiv lokalnih nasilnika. Vjeruje da mu je to što je bio dio velike irske porodice, sedam braće i četiri sestre, ublažilo poteškoće u djetinjstvu, kao i njegove strastvene čitalačke navike. Iako nije jasno kako je Powderlyjeva katolička vjera utjecala na njegov rani život, on je, kako se izvješćuje, naučio toleranciju i saosjećanje prema onima kojima je to potrebno iz bliskog odnosa sa svojom majkom, abolicionistom.

Tokom svojih prvih godina zaposlenja, Terence V. Powderly razvio je veliko samopouzdanje i svoju duhovitost i šarm odnio u društvene krugove. Dok je uživao u kartanju i posjećivanju salona, ​​Powderly se ograničio na bezazlene nestašluke, izbjegavao loše društvo i bio nezainteresovan za alkohol.1 Tu u Scrantonu upoznao je Hannah Dever, kćer radnika rudnika Scranton, i njenu braću Johnnyja i Eda. Hannah i Terence vjenčali su se 19. septembra 1872. godine i bili će zajedno do njene smrti 1907. godine, dok će Johnny i Ed postati Powderlyjevi prijatelji u ovom razdoblju mladosti i kasnije.

Depresija 1873. godine jako je pogodila američku ekonomiju, a Powderly je bio jedan od bezbroj radnika otpuštenih te godine. Odlučio je otputovati i zaposliti se, ali Powderly je postao predsjednik lokalne međunarodne unije strojara i kovača nedugo nakon što se pridružio 1871. Nije uspio zaraditi novac jer mu je ime stavljeno na crnu listu, pa je postao depresivan dok je njegova supruga trpjela produžene periode razdvojenosti i preseljenje iz vlastitog stana u kuću njene majke. Njegov demoralizirani povratak u Scranton bio je praćen ličnom tragedijom koju je Hannah skoro preminula rodivši koje će im biti jedino dijete, djevojčicu koja je umrla nekoliko dana kasnije.

Godine 1876. Terence V. Powderly pridružio se vitezovima rada u Scrantonu. Kao i sa svojim prethodnim sindikalnim iskustvom, Powderly se brzo uzdigao na mjesto lokalnog majstora Workmana i bio je u bliskoj koordinaciji s Philadelphia Knightsima. Mnogi njegovi kolege radnici su decentraliziranu prirodu organizacije vidjeli kao prednost u odnosu na frakcijsku i opadajuću Međunarodnu uniju strojara i kovača, koju je Powderly na kraju napustio 1877. S druge strane, mnogi su smatrali da su rituali i obredi inicijacije plemića i Sveti red vitezova rada težak. Osim toga, bratstvo su doveli u pitanje unutrašnje vjerske i etničke predrasude. U stvari, ove podjele navele su Powderlyja da nakratko podnese ostavku na mjesto majstora Workmana sve dok njegovo vodstvo kao člana nije razotkrilo netrpeljivost kroz uzastopne pozive na jedinstvo, nakon čega je ponovo uspostavljen.

Samo godinu dana nakon što se pridružio, Powderly je napustio posao strojara i postao stalni organizator za Knights, sa smanjenjem plaća od 110 USD mjesečno. Njegova posvećenost organizaciji bila je usklađena sa vizijom osnivanja radničkih kolektiva postignutom izbjegavanjem štrajkova kad god je to moguće i nasilnim radnjama u svakom trenutku. Kada se u ljeto 1877. dogodio niz značajnih štrajkova u Pennsylvaniji, Powderly postavio se na konstruktivnije zadatke, kao što je prikupljanje sredstava za porodice poginulih, bojkot trgovaca koji su se protivili nastavku štrajka rudara, osnivanje kooperativne trgovine mješovitom robom za pomoć štrajkačima, organiziranje ogorčenih u lokalne skupštine, i prije svega , pokrećući točkove za poraz poslodavaca i njihovih političkih poslušnika tokom sljedećih izbora.1 Takve taktike, posebno bojkot, bile su njegova nada za buduću ulogu vitezova širom zemlje.

Polazeći od incidenata iz 1877., mnogi su shvatili dubinu saveza države i korporacija i držali novootkriveni entuzijazam prema trećoj strani u politici. Vitezovi su ukinuli zabranu političkih rasprava stvaranjem sastanka Odbora za napredak koji će se održati odmah nakon redovnog sastanka skupštine. U prahu je koordinirao prvi sastanak “Greenback-Laburističke stranke” ubrzo nakon početka viteške političke rasprave. Pozvao je svako lokalno poglavlje Vitezova rada da pošalje predstavnika Odbora za napredak. Okupljanje je postavilo platformu čija je poruka ocijenila da su dvije dominantne stranke žalosne za podršku najamnih radnika, a odlučili su se i o kandidatima za tu stranku.

Prašno je vodio različite napore dosezanja birača i „praćenja glasanja“ kako bi se osigurala točnost izbora, a stranka je osigurala pobjedu u svih pet ureda za koje su se kandidirali na županijskim izborima. Kao odgovor na njegove napore i njegov lokalni utjecaj, stranka je izabrala Powderlyja za kandidata za gradonačelnika Scrantona za stranku Greenback-Labor. Pokrećući kampanju koja je obećavala smanjenje duga i efikasnost vlade, Powderly se istovremeno smatrao izazivačem statusa quo radničke klase. Njegovi protivnici udružili su snage i sudjelovali u osudljivim nastojanjima da potkopaju njegov kredibilitet. Neki su istaknuli njegovo katoličanstvo kao prijetnju, dok su drugi naglasili kako Katolička crkva ne odobrava vitezove rada. Njihovi negativni napori u kampanji bili su neuspješni, pa je Terence V. Powderly izabran za gradonačelnika Scrantona u februaru 1878. godine, čemu se pridružilo značajno prisustvo Greenback-Laburista u gradskom vijeću i drugim uredima.

Po preuzimanju dužnosti, gradonačelnik Powderly odmah je iznio svoj plan stvaranja modernog grada: zdravstveni odbor, istragu prijevara, izgradnju odgovarajuće kanalizacije i asfaltirane ceste. Iako nikada nije imao većinu u gradskom vijeću, mnoge njegove inicijative usvojila su gradska vijeća do kraja njegova tri mandata. U roku od 6 mjeseci od preuzimanja dužnosti, on je popravio provođenje zakona i izabrao ljude od integriteta za službu, uglavnom iz Greenback-Laburističke stranke ili Vitezova rada. Novine Scranton, Daily Times, kasnije nazvan gradom kao model narudžbe.2 Njegov posljednji čin 1878. godine bio je uspostavljanje sistema pregleda hrane koji je uključivao strogu primjenu i stroge kazne.

Powderly je 1879. godine na dnevni red postavio odgovarajuće snage za gašenje požara, dok ga je sve veće priznanje kao političara rada izvan Scrantona konačno sustiglo. Uspješno uvođenje politike u Vitezove dogodilo se na brojnim lokacijama, ali Powderly je bio najjasniji primjer. Kada je odlučeno da se stvori nacionalna organizacija za sindikat, Powderly je prvo izabran za Velikog dostojnog predradnika, zamjenu, a zatim je preuzeo najvišu poziciju velikog majstora Workmana nakon ostavke Uriah Stephens. Ponovo je izabran na ovu najvišu poziciju sindikalnog rukovodstva deset uzastopnih mandata, i većina posmatrača je svaki njegov iskaz o današnjim problemima tumačila kao službeni stav rada, dok su čitali njegove članke i slušali njegove govore.2

Nakon tijesne pobjede na izborima od devedeset devet glasova nad svojim republikanskim izazivačem, Powderlyjev posao gradonačelnika nastavljen je početkom 1880-ih s tri glavna zakona. Prvo je osnovan odbor za žalbe za one koji se nisu složili sa procjenom poreza. Drugi zakon je nastavio njegov rad na kanalizacionom sistemu, a treći je uspostavio licence za trgovce i preduzeća u Scrantonu, što se smatra malim korakom ka pravednijoj raspodjeli bogatstva. Kako je došla sezona reizbora, njegovo najveće bogatstvo bila je zasluga za zdravstvene reforme. Lokalne novine objavljivale su izvještaje o tome kako su mjere koje je donio ograničile izbijanje bolesti poput velikih boginja, ali je ipak Demokratska stranka apsorbirala ili pobijedila većinu Greenback-Laburističke stranke do 1882.

Powderly je posredovao u dogovoru o prihvatanju demokratske nominacije iz političke svrhe, koja mu je uspjela pobijediti na izborima, uprkos oštrim kritikama protivnika o tom potezu. U prošlom mandatu nastavio je raditi na efikasnosti vlade, posebno u pogledu procjene poreza, te je dao konstruktivne prijedloge poput izgradnje bolnice i javne zgrade za budućnost. Potrošio je znatnu količinu energije u gubljenju napora za demokratsku nominaciju 1884. godine protiv karijernog političara, na šta kritički historičari brzo ističu umjesto svojih odgovornosti kao vođe Vitezova rada.

Kritike i pristalice Powderlyjeve vodeće uloge u Vitezovima rada nazvali su ga idealista, reformator, humanitarac, vjetrometina, odmetnik, prevarant, prevarant, agitator, introvert, tragač za sobom, šarlatan, jeftini političar, prevrtljivac, ruble rouser i drippy sentimentalist.3 Drugi su rekli da su kvalitete koje su ga učinile velikim gradonačelnikom iste zbog kojih su postale nesposobne vođe sindikata, uglavnom zbog njegove nespremnosti da delegira odgovornost. U svakom slučaju, Terencea V. Powderlyja su mnogi nacionalno priznali kao glas rada tokom svog vremena, kao što je ranije spomenuto. Osim toga, Vitezovi rada postali su glavni sindikat tokom njegove ere koji je narastao na 700.000 članova 1886. godine sa samo 9.300 članova kada je Powderly preuzeo uzde 1879. godine.

Drugi faktori osim Powderlyja važno je uzeti u obzir pri ocjenjivanju uspjeha vitezova laburista, prije svega kraj depresije i pobjeda lokalnog vitezova rada protiv zloglasnog pljačkaškog baruna Jaya Goulda. Ipak, Powderly je kao vođa pružio pedantnu administrativnu pažnju detaljima. Također je nastavio obeshrabrivati ​​vitezove laburista od nepotrebnog uključivanja u štrajkove ili nasilne radnje i izbjegavao dominantnu školu mišljenja u sindikatu, ograničavajući s nekim uspjehom štetnu percepciju sindikata kao anarhističke, socijalističke i radikalne grupe u tom periodu kada je najviše rastao. Na svom vrhuncu radnici su djeci davali imena po Terenceu V. Powderlyju i bodrili njegov dolazak.

Iako je ograničio negativnu percepciju, Powderly je istovremeno naporno radio na tome primaju zaposlene ljude iz gotovo svih zamislivih pozadina bio je harizmatični zagovornik solidarnosti.1 On je ohrabrio međurasne i međupolne skupštine, istovremeno predlažući odvojene skupštine ako su prepreke prevelike za integraciju različitih grupa. Powderlyjev pristup očuvanju vitezova rada s visokim stupnjem lokalne autonomije drugi je element na koji se gledalo pozitivno, što je struktura koju rijetko koriste sindikati od 1930 -ih.

Godina 1886., posebno nakon incidenta oko afere Haymarket u Chicagu, označava prekretnicu za vitezove laburista i vodstvo Powderlyja. Anarhisti su nepravedno osuđeni u vezi s eksplozijom koja se dogodila na demonstracijama na Haymarketu, ali Powderly je oklijevao pozvati organizaciju u nove štrajkove ili se žarko izjasniti protiv ove nepravde. Dolaskom Velikog prevrata 1886. godine i lošijim ekonomskim uvjetima, novi članovi vitezova poduzeli su akcije koje su bile loše planirane i financirane, posebno štrajkove velikih razmjera. Veliki majstor Workman se nadao da će uspostaviti veći nadzor kako bi izbjegao prekomjerno proširenje vitezova, ali su poslodavci iskoristili ove sukobe i iskorijenili vitezove iz njihove industrije prije nego što su se mogle izvršiti takve promjene.

Solidarnost koju je Terence V. Powderly godinama gradio sada se raspadala i prelazila u druge organizacije, posebno kvalifikovane radnike u Američku federaciju rada. Povjesničari predlažu niz objašnjenja. Jedan je da lokalna struktura i decentralizirano donošenje odluka stavljaju previše vjere u radnike da bi utvrdili kada nema druge mogućnosti osim štrajka koji im je na raspolaganju ova struktura nije funkcionirala u vrijeme ekonomske krize kada se uvijek činilo da ne postoji druga mogućnost osim štrajka.

Unutar jedne decenije od Velikog prevrata, članstvo Vitezova laburista palo je na 20.000. Unutarnji i vanjski suparnici Powderlyjevom vodstvu u radničkom pokretu iznjeli su u njega najgore i najsumnjivije sklonosti, a prethodni demokratski i tolerantni prizvuci pokreta sve su više nedostajali u Powderlyjevom vodstvu. Ovaj drugi period služenja kao Veliki majstor Workman, koji je okončan 1893. godine uzastopnim unutrašnjim protivnikom Johnom Hayesom, obilježen je samo jednom svijetlom tačkom. Powderly je 1888. radio s kardinalom Gibbonsom na ublažavanju napetosti između Katoličke crkve i vitezova rada, uključujući papinsko odobrenje da se katolici pridruže uniji.

Jedan je pisac identificirao četiri specifične karakteristike vitezova koje su katoličku hijerarhiju učinile sumnjičavom, pa čak i formalno odbacile organizaciju u određenim regijama prije 1888. godine: njezinu tajnu vezanu uz zakletvu, masonske aspekte, njezinu sličnost s Molly Maguires i očigledan socijalistički ili radikalni karakter. Crkva je priznala prava radnika na samoorganiziranje, ali zakletva na apsolutnu tajnost i ritualnu prirodu vitezova rada nije se mogla prihvatiti i činilo se da zahtijeva kvazireligijsku predanost sindikatu. Molly Maguires i radikalni elementi grupe koju je Powderly predložio bili su posljedica njezine decentralizirane prirode, ali većina klerika pogrešno je shvatila organizaciju, neki do njenog konačnog kolapsa.

Nakon što je Terence V. Powderly izgubio položaj u Vitezovima, prešao je na studij prava i primljen u advokatsku komoru u Pennsylvaniji 1894. godine, kasnije se svađajući pred Vrhovnim sudom Pennsylvanije i Sjedinjenim Državama. Snažno je osjećao da je pravosudni sistem pristrasan i previše tehnički. Godine 1896. vratio se u politiku i predsjednik William McKinley imenovao ga je generalnim komesarom za imigraciju za kojeg je pomogao u kampanji. Prašnjavo istražen otok Ellis, što je dovelo do brojnih otpuštanja, međutim, ti bivši zaposlenici koristili su klevetu da ga otpuste kada je Theodore Roosevelt stupio na mjesto predsjednika 1902. U roku od nekoliko godina, Powderly je vraćen na mjesto specijalnog imigracijskog inspektora, tadašnjeg načelnika Odjela za useljenički biro. informacija od 1907-1921, i na kraju komesar za pomirenje američkog Ministarstva rada. Umro je 24. juna 1924. godine u Washingtonu.

Posljednje godine Terencea V. Powderlyja provele su s prijateljima, poput čestih gošća u kući Mary Harris "Mother" Jones i Johna B. Whitea. Mnogim od tih prijatelja pridružio bi se u Kući slavnih Ministarstva rada Sjedinjenih Država, kojoj je čast ukazana 1999. Njegova je autobiografija objavljena posthumno, Put kojim sam kročio. Iako su brojne kritike o Powderlyju već spomenute, općenito je prihvaćen njegov stav da useljavanje treba zatvoriti za kineske pojedince i druge Azijate, što je za njegovo vrijeme bio široko prihvaćen stav. Iako je službeno postojala zabrana diskriminacije po boji, neki znanstvenici sugeriraju da Vitezovi rada nisu bili toliko međurasno progresivni koliko se činilo i prakticirali su prikrivenu diskriminaciju i/ili željenu društvenu kontrolu nad potencijalnim crnjacima.

Iako su ga mnogi povjesničari tretirali oštro i odbacivali kao beznačajnog, Terence V. Powderly u posljednje je vrijeme dobio veću pažnju, čak i od strane onih koji Vitezove rada smatraju neuspjelim eksperimentom ili propuštenom prilikom radničkog pokreta. Kao veliki radnik, pokazao je način na koji solidarnost i decentralizirani pristup mogu funkcionirati u sindikatu s obzirom na odgovarajuće uslove. Posadio je sjeme za veće prihvaćanje radničkog pokreta od strane Katoličke crkve, postavljajući pozornicu za druge katolike poput Dorothy Day. Konačno, Terence V. Powderly dao je primjer kako političar može postići široku privlačnost vođenjem kampanje na mješavini radnih i drugih političkih pozicija, poput fiskalne odgovornosti. Terence V. Powderly bio je talentiran i karizmatičan čovjek koji je zaslužio nacionalnu pažnju u američkom radničkom pokretu s kraja 19. stoljeća i ostavio naslijeđe za raspravu povjesničarima.


Odsjek za istoriju

Dr Terence Keel je vanredni profesor na Kalifornijskom univerzitetu u Santa Barbari, gdje služi kao potpredsjednik Odsjeka za istoriju i ima imenovanje na Odsjeku za crne studije i Odsjeku za vjerske studije. Doktorirao je na Univerzitetu Harvard. Dr. Keel je interdisciplinarni naučnik sa obukom iz vjeronauka, historije nauka, istorije Afroamerikanaca, te nauke i tehnologije. Mnogo je pisao o istoriji rasizma i njegovim vezama sa modernim biološkim naukama, vjerskoj intelektualnoj istoriji, pravu, medicini i javnom zdravlju. Njegovo istraživanje je istraživalo ova pitanja u Sjedinjenim Državama, Evropi i Meksiku. Njegova prva knjiga, Božanske varijacije (Stanford University Press, januar 2018.) je studija o tome kako je kršćanska misao olakšala razvoj znanstvenog rasizma i oblikovala epistemička opredjeljenja modernog proučavanja ljudske biološke raznolikosti. Dobitnik je nagrada za svoja istraživanja od Nacionalne naučne fondacije, Vijeća za istraživanje društvenih nauka, Centra za američke studije Charlesa Warrena na Univerzitetu Harvard i Ureda predsjednika Univerziteta u Kaliforniji. Nedavno je 2017. godine dobio nagradu Harold J. Plous na Univerzitetu Santa Barbara, najveću čast koju je senat fakulteta dodijelio mlađem profesoru za izvrsnost u nastavi, stipendijama i uslugama.

Trenutno radi na projektu knjige koji istražuje odnos nauke i društva ispitujući kako nastavnici nauke i zdravstveni radnici koji rade u historijski crnim institucijama šire ideje iz evolucijske biologije i eugeničkog pokreta u maštu javnosti. Knjiga će biti usredsređena na rad liječnika dr. Charlesa V. Romana sa Medicinskog fakulteta Meharry, embriologa dr. Ernesta Everetta Justa sa Sveučilišta Howard, biologa i katoličkog aktivista za građanska prava dr. Thomasa Wyatta Turnera s Howard -a i Hampton univerziteta. , i Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, profesorica medicine na Univerzitetu Howard i zagovornica zdravstvene zaštite za siromašne poljoprivrednike zakupce i dioničare u delti Mississippija. Doktorica Keel je dobila grant za istraživanje od UC konzorcija za crne studije čiji je domaćin Odjel za afroameričke studije na UCLA -i za rad na ovom projektu.

On također radi na dodatnom projektu koji ispituje kako genetičari koriste drevnu DNK za stvaranje pripovijesti o zdravlju i ponašanju savremene populacije. Ovaj rad kombinira povijesne nauke i etnografske istraživačke metode kako bi postavio suvremene znanstvene ideje o mješavini čovjeka i neandertalca unutar šire povijesne putanje znanstvene rasprave i teoretizacije o razlici između ljudskog i neljudskog, podrijetla predaka grupa stanovništva i pojmova rizika od bolesti i rasne sposobnosti. Ovaj projekt ispituje tvrdnje genetičara od 2014. u vezi s vezama neandertalske DNK i povećanim rizikom od dijabetesa tipa 2 u meksičkoj populaciji.

Dr. Keel je podružnica novoosnovanog Centra za proučavanje rasizma, socijalne pravde i zdravlja pod vodstvom dr. Chandra Forda sa UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. On je i ko-urednik posebnog broja časopisa Američki časopis za pravo i medicinu (Jesen 2017.) koji je istraživao kako teorija kritične rase može transformirati proučavanje zdravstvenih nejednakosti kroz zdravstvene znanosti.

Osim svog naučnog rada, on je i viši savjetnik Goldin instituta, neprofitne organizacije sa sjedištem u Čikagu koja se globalno zalaže za lokalno liderstvo, rješavanje sukoba, ublažavanje siromaštva i ekološku pravdu.

Kontaktiraj nas

Odsjek za istoriju
Univerzitet u Kaliforniji, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, Kalifornija 93106-9410


Terence Mckenna i Psihodeliki

Terence McKenna je vjerojatno osoba koja je podigla najveću svijest o psihodelicima, tačnije DMT -u. Zapravo, McKenna je bio jedan od vatrenih pristalica uvođenja DMT -a u društvo.

Uz psilocibinske gljive i ayahuascu, McKenna je vjerovao da je DMT krajnje oboženje postojanja.

Tokom 1967. do 1994. McKenna je često pušila DMT. Tijekom ovih godina stekao bi mnoga otkrića. Jedan od njih proizašao je iz halucinacije u kojoj je shvatio entitet s kojim će se mnogi entuzijasti psihodelika kasnije upoznati: “mašinski vilenjaci “. McKenna je opisao ove inteligentne entitete kao samo-transformišuće ​​mašinske vilenjake.

Zagovornik čarobne gljive mogao je zaključiti kroz svoja lična psihodelična iskustva da je cilj ovih entiteta bio pokazati ljudima kako stvarati koristeći jezik. Mašinski vilenjaci su sada, često prijavljeni od strane pojedinaca koji koriste DMT.

Psihodeli su dozvolili McKennau da spoji svoju duhovnost šamanizma sa svojim razumijevanjem svijeta. McKenna je svoje višestruko iskustvo s psihodelicima koristio za obrazovanje drugih i često je snimao javne govore.

Njegov posljednji objavljeni govor imao je naslov Psihodelici u doba inteligentnih mašinai karakterizirao je vezu između psihodelika, tehnologije i ljudi.


Policajac koji je ubio Terencea Crutchera ima povijest upotrebe droga, domaće smetnje

Federalna istraga istražuje policijsko pucanje na Terencea Crutchera u Tulsi u Oklahomi, što je također potaknulo dublju istragu o historiji i prošlom ponašanju policajca koji je učestvovao u njegovoj smrti.

Policajka Betty Shelby, bijela žena, ubila je u petak 40-godišnjeg Crutchera, crnca, nakon što je naišla na njegovo vozilo, koje je bilo zaustavljeno nasred ceste, odgovarajući na nepovezan poziv. Crutchera je kasnije razbio drugi oficir samo nekoliko sekundi prije nego što je Shelby ispalila oružje. Crutcherova porodica traži krivičnu prijavu protiv njegovog ubice. Međutim, Shelbyin advokat je rekao da je pucala iz svog oružja jer se bojala za svoj život, uprkos činjenici da je Crutcher bio nenaoružan i da je imao podignute ruke samo nekoliko trenutaka prije nego što je upucan, što se vidi na video snimcima.

Pucnjava, jedna od posljednjih u nizu policijskih ubistava crnaca i žena, privukla je pažnju cijele zemlje. To je stavilo Shelbyjevu radnu historiju pod veliku pažnju. Više informacija objavljenih ove sedmice o njenom profesionalnom porijeklu i privatnom životu, neke koje je otkrio njen advokat Scott Wood, moglo bi pomoći u stvaranju potpunije slike o njoj. Takve informacije rutinski prezentiraju organi reda i ponavljaju mediji, često s posljedicom nepravednog okarakteriziranja osumnjičenih kao "nasilnika" predisponiranih za počinjenje zločina. Ovdje je prijavljeno Shelbyno porijeklo kako bi se istaknuo ovaj dvostruki standard u načinu na koji govorimo o karakteru policajaca za razliku od civilnih sumnjivih osoba.

Shelby se pridružila policiji Tulsa 2011. godine nakon što je od 2007. bila zamjenica u uredu šerifa okruga Tulsa, prema NBC News. Njen muž je takođe policajac i bio je na dužnosti one noći kad je Crutcher upucan. Zapravo, Dave Shelby je bio u helikopteru koji je letio iznad glave i bilježio trenutke koji su prethodili pucnjavi. U tom video zapisu, koji je u ponedjeljak objavila Policijska uprava Tulsa, čuo se policajac koji opisuje Crutchera kao "lošeg tipa". Međutim, portparol policije u Tulsi rekao je da Dave Shelby nije dao komentar.

Betty Shelby se razvela i udala se barem jednom. Prema prijavi za posao koju je 2007. godine podnijela šerifovoj kancelariji, nova supruga njenog bivšeg muža podnijela je zaštitni nalog protiv nje 2002. godine kako bi prekinula uznemiravanje telefonskih poziva koje nova Shelby tvrdi. Naredba je na kraju odbijena i Shelby je zadržala svoju nevinost.

Skoro deceniju ranije, primetila je Shelby na istoj prijavi, raskid sa njenim tadašnjim dečkom doveo je do toga da su njih dvojica oštetili automobile. Privremene mjere zabrane su podnesene i na kraju izbačene.

Shelby je sada stručnjakinja za prepoznavanje droga, za koju je Wood rekao da je prošla obuku. Rekla je da vjeruje da je Crutcher bio pod utjecajem kad ga je srela. Policija je rekla da je kasnije pronašla PCP u Crutcherovom automobilu, ali on nije jedini u slučaju koji navodno ima istoriju upotrebe droga. U istoj prijavi za posao u kojoj je Shelby zabilježila različite kućne smetnje, označila je "da" pod upitnikom koji je pitao da li je "posedovala i koristila ilegalne droge" u prošlosti. Shelby je rekla da je marihuanu koristila dva puta sa 18 godina.

Shelby također ima dvije pritužbe na pretjeranu silu, prema KJRH. Smatralo se da su oba slučaja neosnovana. KJRH također izvještava da Shelby ima četiri pohvale, kao i nagradu za zaslužne usluge u Oklahomi.

Očekuje se da će više informacija o slučaju pucnjave biti objavljeno dok se istraga nastavi.

Shelby, koja je trenutno na administrativnom odsustvu, sada je prava meta iste provjere i istrage koju su iskusile mnoge manjinske žrtve policijskih pucnjava. Naravno, Shelbyino prethodno priznanje da je koristila drogu kao tinejdžer vjerojatno nije relevantno za ovaj slučaj, ali manji prekršaji - poput upotrebe marihuane - nikada nisu izostavljeni iz priče crne žrtve, bez obzira na to koliko su irelevantne. Da budemo jasni: ovakvi incidenti nemaju utjecaja na nečiju krivicu ili nevinost u konkretnom incidentu, ali ako želimo staviti naglasak na pozadinu i historiju žrtava policijskih strijeljanja, jedino je pošteno istaknuti one policajce koji su ubili njih.

Što se tiče Crutchera, oni koji su ga najbolje poznavali mogu istinski ispričati priču o tome ko je bio i za šta se zalagao.

„Svi želite znati ko je bio taj veliki zločesti tip? Taj veliki zločesti momak bio je moj brat blizanac ”, rekla je Crutcherova sestra Tiffany na konferenciji za novinare nakon njegove smrti. “Taj veliki zločesti tip je bio otac. Taj veliki zločesti tip je bio sin. That big bad dude was enrolled at Tulsa Community College… That big bad dude loved God. That big bad dude was at church singing with all his flaws every week. That big bad dude, that’s who he was.”

Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly described the position of Crutcher’s hands during the encounter and when he was Tasered. His hands were raised in the moments before he was shot. Another officer deployed his Taser before the shot was fired.


Duren, Terence

Terence Duren (1907-1968) was a leading Nebraska artist from the post-World War II period. Duren, who lived most of his life in Shelby, is most widely known for his regionalist works, which drew on his rural Nebraska upbringing. He is one of a group of Nebraska artists, including John Falter and Grant Reynard, whose illustrations were a significant portion of their output.

Duren began to paint when he was stricken with polio at age six. To occupy their bedridden son, his parents gave him crayons and a tablet. In an interview shortly before his death, Duren said he realized then that he would be an artist.

Duren graduated from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1929 and studied at the Fontainebleau School of Art in France and the Kunstgewerbe Schule in Vienna. The European schools specialized in mural painting, and in the 1930s Duren was best known as a muralist. Duren served as an instructor at the Cleveland Institute of Art from 1930 to 1941 and taught at the Art Institute of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Duren's career and reputation reached a zenith in 1944 when one of his paintings was chosen for Portrait of America, an exhibition which opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and then toured to eight museums across the country.

Among his other projects, Duren designed sets for an opera company in Cleveland, as well as the sets and costumes for a marionette production of Pyr Gynt at the New York World's Fair (1939-40). He was later an ardent supporter of the Brownville Historical Society and its effort to restore Brownville.


Terence Blanchard

Grammy Award-winning jazz trumpeter Terence Blanchard is one of the most prominent brass players, bandleaders, and recording artists of his generation. Blessed with a warm yet often fiery trumpet sound and an ear for deep harmonic sophistication, Blanchard is a standard-bearer for the searching post-bop style of his predecessors, including Miles Davis, Woody Shaw, and Booker Little. An impressive "Young Lion" in his early days with Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, he developed over time into a mature bandleader and a highly regarded film composer.

Born on March 13, 1962 in New Orleans, Louisiana, Terence Oliver Blanchard was an only child to parents Wilhelmina and Joseph Oliver Blanchard. He began playing piano by the age of five, switched to trumpet three years later, and played alongside childhood friend and fellow New Orleans native Wynton Marsalis in summer band camps. While in high school, he took extracurricular classes at the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts with Roger Dickerson and Ellis Marsalis. From 1980 to 1982, Blanchard studied under Paul Jeffrey and Bill Fielder at Rutgers University in New Jersey while touring with Lionel Hampton's orchestra. In 1982 Blanchard replaced Wynton Marsalis (under his recommendation) in Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, working in that band until 1986 as lead soloist and musical director. He then co-led a prominent quintet with saxophonist Donald Harrison, recording a handful of albums for the Concord, Columbia, and Evidence record labels in five years, including 1983's New York Second Line, 1984's Discernment, and 1988's Black Pearl.

In the '90s, Blanchard became a leader in his own right, recording for the Columbia label and issuing albums like 1992's Terence Blanchard and 1993's Simply Stated. These albums found him balancing his love of the New Orleans jazz and bop traditions with his own increasingly distinctive and progressive compositional voice. Other albums, like 1994's minor-tinged The Billie Holiday Songbook, 1996's The Heart Speaks with singer/composer Ivan Lins, and 1999's orchestral-leaning Jazz in Film, also showcased his broad stylistic palette.

Also during this period, he developed a fruitful working relationship with director Spike Lee. Having first played on the soundtracks to several of Lee's films, including Mo' Better Blues and Do the Right Thing, Blanchard then composed the music for many of Lee's subsequent films, including Jungle Fever, Malcom X, Clockers, Summer of Sam, 25th Hour, Inside Man, and the Hurricane Katrina documentary When the Levees Broke for HBO. With over 40 scores to his credit, Blanchard is one of the most sought-after jazz musicians to ever compose for film.

In the fall of 2000, Blanchard was named artistic director of the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Keeping up with his love of live performance and touring, Blanchard also maintained a regular studio presence, delivering albums like 2000's Wandering Moon, 2001's Let's Get Lost, and 2003's Bounce. Produced by pianist Herbie Hancock, 2005's Flow received two Grammy nominations. Also in 2005, Blanchard was part of pianist McCoy Tyner's ensemble that won the Grammy in the Best Jazz Instrumental Album category for Illuminations. The trumpeter also took home the Grammy Award for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album for 2007's A Tale of God's Will (A Requiem for Katrina). By April of 2007, the Monk Institute announced its Commitment to New Orleans initiative, which included the relocation of the program to the campus of Loyola University in New Orleans, spearheaded by Blanchard.

Signing with Concord Jazz in 2009, he released Choices -- recorded at the Ogden Museum of Art in Blanchard's hometown -- at the end of that summer. Two years later, he paid tribute to the innovative Afro-Cuban recordings of Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo by teaming up with Latin jazz percussionist Poncho Sanchez for the studio album Chano y Dizzy! The following year, Blanchard returned to his film work by scoring the soundtrack to director George Lucas' WWII action drama Red Tails. Also that year, music business legend Don Was brought the trumpeter back to Blue Note Records. Blanchard's first offering for the label was 2013's Magnetic, an album that showcased a new quintet and guest appearances by Ron Carter and labelmates Lionel Loueke and Ravi Coltrane.

In 2015, Blanchard followed up once again on Blue Note with the electric fusion and R&B-infused Breathless. Featuring backing from Blanchard's band the E-Collective, the album also included contributions from vocalist PJ Morton. Returning to film work, he supplied the original score for director Taylor Hackford's 2017 film Comedian. Joining Blanchard on the soundtrack were pianist Kenny Barron, tenor saxophonist Ravi Coltrane, alto saxophonist Khari Allen Lee, bassist David Pulphus, and drummer Carl Allen. In 2018, Blanchard was named a USA Fellow, and composed the score to Spike Lee's film BlacKkKlansman, which won him a Grammy Award. He also released the concert album Live with his E-Collective. Returning to film work, Blanchard scored the 2019 Harriet Tubman biopic, Harriet, along with another Lee film, Da 5 Bloods, in 2020. Other soundtracks from that year included One Night in Miami and the first season of HBO's Perry Mason series.


Terence Powderly

Terence Powderly was born in 1849, in Carbondale, Pennsylvania. While still a teenager, Powderly became an apprentice in a machine shop. Unhappy with working conditions in his chosen industry, Powderly joined the Machinists and Blacksmiths National Union in 1871. Within one year, Powderly had become this union's president.

During the late nineteenth century, Powderly emerged as one of the leading advocates for better working conditions for American workers. He joined the Knights of Labor, another union, in 1874. In 1879, Powderly attained the highest leadership office, Grand Master Workman, in the Knights of Labor. Under Powderly's leadership, the Knights of Labor's membership rose to 700,000 laborers. Powderly generally opposed strikes, preferring boycotts and peaceful negotiations to attain an eight-hour work day, better wages, and improved working conditions in general. Other leaders within the Knights of Labor preferred utilizing strikes. After the Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago, Illinois, in 1886, the Knights of Labor declined as an effective organization. Powderly resigned as grand master workman in 1893.

Powderly's leadership style caused much dissatisfaction among the Knights of Labor's members, especially among those members who favored strikes. In 1886, Samuel Gompers broke with the Knights of Labor. He called for an organization meeting to occur in Columbus, Ohio in December 1886. At this meeting, Gompers and his supporters created a new union, the American Federation of Labor. This organization quickly emerged as one of the United States' most powerful unions during the 1890s.


Terence - History

Classical Drama and Theatre

Chapter 14: Roman Comedy, Part 2 (Terence)


I. Introduction: Roman Comedy after Plautus

Following Plautus' death in the mid-180's BCE, Caecilius Statius emerged as the pre-eminent playwright of Roman Comedy. Though much admired in his day and long after, not even one work of his survives whole and intact. Yet even so, it's evident from the surviving fragments of his plays and other data that his comedy was less boisterous than Plautus'. That Caecilius Statius stayed closer to the tone and structure of his Hellenistic models is clear not only from the fragments of his plays but also the fact that their titles are mostly in Greek, not Latin, in some cases corresponding directly with the titles of the Menandrean originals he was adapting.

This does not mean, of course, that Caecilius Statius wrote in Greek rather, it suggests that he inclined away from the Romanizing tendencies of his immediate predecessors Naevius and Plautus whose plays almost invariably have Latin titles, often not even translations of the original Greek title. (note) In other words, Roman Hellenism was clearly on the rise in the 170's BCE, and undoubtedly that was in no small part because of Caecilius' efforts. But his death in 168 BCE opened the door for new voices to enter the Roman stage, and onto these boards trod one of the greatest the Romans would ever produce, Publius Terentius Afer, known today as Terence.

Little is known about Terence's life, not even the years of his birth and death. Still, we can make good guesses at both. Ancient sources report he died young and, since his last play was produced in 160 BCE, he was probably born at some point between 195 and 185. Thus, he died most likely soon after his final drama debuted, probably in the early 150's. (note)

With that, he would never have known Plautus, though there are other reasons these two are not likely to have met—they traveled in very different social circles—however, if the story is not a fiction, Terence as a young man Terence met Caecilius Statius. (note) Other data, however, which are often cited in textbooks as facts about Terence's life, such as that he was originally a slave from North Africa and later freed, seem on closer inspection suspect, at best "secondary" evidence." About his drama and career as a playwright, on the other hand, we are much better informed.

Several remarkable things stand out about Terence's work. First and foremost, all the plays he ever wrote survive complete. Along with that have come significant details about them: the years in which they premiered and thus the order in which he composed them, who produced them and at what festival, from which Greek originals Terence worked, and even the musician who arranged the music. So, for instance, we know that Terence's consummate masterpiece, Adelphoe ("The Brothers"), was staged at the celebrations surrounding the funeral of Aemilius Paullus in 160 BCE. All this information makes it possible to track Terence's career as we can no other ancient playwright's, even a celebrity on the order of Sophocles.

Nor does any other ancient dramatist's entire corpus survive. Indeed, few other classical authors writing in any genre have their entire body of work preserved, and then only luminaries like Vergil. (note) Thus, in many ways Terence stands alone among ancient dramatists. His work is uniquely well-documented, and the reason must be, at least in part, the high regard in which he was held from his own time on.

So, for instance, the Romans living in the next century (100-1 BCE) saw Terence's writing style as the model of their own—Julius Caesar himself composed a treatise on Terence's sermo purus ("clean dialogue" note)—and well over a millennium later professors in the Renaissance used his drama as a teaching tool. Even a tenth-century nun named Hrotswitha (ili Hrotsvit), a canoness living in a cloister in northern Germany just after the Viking invasions, read Terence's dramas with a pleasure that made her uneasy, and so she remodeled them to suit the ethic of the chaste Christian life and glorious virginity she and her sisters in their abbey exemplified.

As a result, we have over six-hundred Terence rukopisi, some of great antiquity and accuracy, dating from many different periods of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Compared to Plautus whose plays survived medieval times on the slenderest of threads, the existence of so many copies of Terence's work is a remarkable tribute to his endurance as an artist. (note) All in all, it is hard to find any age in which Terence's work has not been praised and imitated and his name not widely known, except our own, of course. On whom that will reflect more—Terence or us?—only the future can say.

As another item of note, scholia accompany all Terence's plays. Like those appended to Aristophanes' work, these critical commentaries explicate a wide range of subjects, everything from Terence's meter to his word choice to the original Greek underlying the Latin. Harboring many valuable, albeit not always accurate, morsels of data, the Terence scholia date back to the time of—and, no doubt, the hand of, as well—Aelius Donatus, one of St. Jerome's teachers. Though living in the 300's CE, as far from Terence as we are from da Vinci, Donatus clearly had access to sources of data now lost about this early Roman playwright and, more important, sound judgment in analyzing literature. Ovo scholia attest to a widespread and enduring interest in Terence's work, a general admiration lasting well beyond his lifetime.


III. The Prologues of Terence's Plays

But most remarkable of all—and, without doubt, the best evidence for Terence's drama and its theatrical context—is information which comes from his own hand, the prologues appended to the front of his dramas. Except for Aristophanes' parabases, the text of every ancient play extant is expressed not with its author himself as the spokesman outright but through the persona of a stage character. This makes it hard, often impossible, to unravel the dramatist from the drama. So, for instance, as strong and clear as Euripides' personal opinions may seem after one reads his plays, not one syllable of any script he wrote is preserved as his own words. Instead, everything we know about the man named Euripides must be deduced through the veil of his drama, or from what others had to say about him.

Terence's prologues, however, address the audience directly and discuss, not the plot of the upcoming play the way Greek dramatists often did, but details of the play's production and the workings of Roman theatre. Thus, unique documents attesting to the nature of Roman Comedy—and Republican drama and society in general—these prologues open our eyes to the world beyond, behind and beneath the play, hinting, for instance, at what rehearsals were like, how productions were funded and the jealousy that could rage between rival playwrights. But, best of all, we hear what Terence has to say about his work and his life in his own words.

And as expected, njegov truth is clearly not the truth, the whole truth, that is. Like any public figure who feels compelled to defend his actions and choices, Terence dodges questions, skirts issues, flatters his producers, kisses up to the public, points to his own genius and, generally, acts like a politician at a press conference, not a patient on truth serum. But like so many invented histories, his catty retorts hint at larger realities and, as it turns out, speak volumes about the artist and his age. Also, because there is no known precedent for these prologues, they may even have been a feature of playwriting Terence himself invented. If so, it is one of the few aspects of drama the Romans may claim as their own, and claim proudly.

As such, the prologues are worth a closer look. Here is the prologue to Terence's Andria ("The Woman from Andros") notable, if for nothing else, as the first words he ever wrote for public performance, since Andria was his first play to be produced on stage:

Our poet, when first he set his mind to writing,
Thought he was doing only one job:
Pleasing the people with the plays he wrote.
But, no! He found out quite differently
That he'd have to spend his time writing prologues
That don't discuss the plot but answer
The abuses of a malevolent decrepit poet.
As to what they cite as his crime, listen to this!
Menander wrote an Andria i a Perinthia.
If you've seen one, you've seen them both—
They're not at all dissimilar in plot in fact,
They differ only in words and style.
What fits into Andria from Perinthia
Our poet admits he "translated" for his own purposes.
And this is what some people call a crime, and furthermore
Add it isn't right to "contaminate" a play. Ali
They show by this thinking they aren't thinking.
When they accuse him, they accuse Naevius, Plautus,
Ennius, too, whom our poet considers his guardians
And whose "carelessness" he'd rather imitate
Than those people's murky punctiliousness.
And so I warn them to quiet down and stop
Their slander, or they'll taste their own medicine!
So, you, be good, judge fairly and listen to the case,
So you can see whether there's any hope left
That the comedies he will re-master after this
You ought to sit and watch, or drive off stage before ever seeing them.

This prologue reveals that Terence felt for some reason compelled to justify the freedoms he had taken in rendering into Latin Menander's original, also entitled Andria. Though the young playwright leaves his accuser unnamed—for rhetorical purposes, it is often wise not to name your detractor but call him something like "that man"—Donatus tells us that it was Luscius Lanuvinus, a second-rate comic dramatist. In some public way, this "malevolent decrepit poet" had taken exception to Terence's practice of combining two Greek plays and making one Roman one. The reason this constitutes malfeasance is not clear—the plays were, after all, written by the same author which begs the question: what sort of criminal abuse is it to mix Menander with himself?—but then we must remember that we are hearing only Terence's side of the case.

To judge from the plaintiff's language, Luscius Lanuvinus has contemptuously referred to this process as contaminatio ("pollution," literally "a touching together"), a charge that has sparked Terence's defensive response. But why does Lanuvinus decry contaminatio?? Did the Romans generally recognize, as some scholars have suggested, that there were a limited number of originals on which to base Roman plays? Did this lead to a rule of some sort about not using more than one Greek play in constructing a Roman copy?

If so, there is little other evidence to this effect, or that Lanuvinus' charges stuck. Terence went on producing plays and, so far as we can tell, "contaminated" everyone of them. Perhaps, then, it was just a matter of good taste, an area of life in which the young rarely listen to their elders.

Nevertheless, the charge of contaminatio did not go away quickly. Terence had to address this issue again in later prologues, such as that appended to Adelphoe ("The Brothers"), the last play he wrote and, without doubt, his consummate masterwork:

After our poet discerned his efforts
Were being criticized by bigots, and rivals
Were carping at the play we're about to perform,
. . . <a line or two is missing here> . . .
As witness for himself he will appear. You will be the judges,
Whether this ought to called a fair play, or foul.
They Died As One is a comedy by Diphilus.
Plautus turned it into Till Death Us Part! (note)
In the Greek play there's a youth who steals a pimp's
Girl in the first scene—this, Plautus omitted entirely—
And this, our poet has now borrowed for himself
U njegovom Adelphoe, translated word for word and now relayed to you.
It's the play we're going to play, all brand new! Consider, then,
If you think this is burglary, or a scene that's been
Rescued, one that was just overlooked accidently.
And as to what those malefactors say, that well-born men
Assist our poet and write with him continually,
He accepts the compliment—and no small compliment it is!—since he pleases
Those who please everyone of you and the Roman people,
For every man in his time has enjoyed a bit of their favor
In war, in peace, in prosperity, without incurring envy.
So, don't expect to hear the plot of the play here.
The old men who come on first will reveal it, some of it,
The action will unveil the rest. So, see to it now that
Your fairness enhances the writer's will to write.

Terence's final play production—that is, the last to have been staged during his lifetime as far as we know—was not Adelphoe, however, but a revival of an earlier flop, Hecyra ("The Mother-in-law"). No fewer than two previous attempts to stage this play had, in fact, failed before the production to which the prologue below was added. The reason for this drama's earlier failures, as explained below, was that noisy and bored spectators had disrupted the theatre so badly the actors could not continue performing—it je a very "talky" play!—so Terence and his producer, the famous actor Lucius Ambivius Turpio, tried a third time to stage the drama. Note that Turpio himself served as the speaker of the prologue, though presumably Terence wrote the words:

As advocate I come before you, in the guise of a prologue.
Allow me to convince you that an old man may have
The same right I once had as a younger man.
In those days I gave old age to new plays, ones driven from the boards,
Making sure the drama did not disappear with the poet.
I produced new plays by Caecilius Statius—
In some of them was booed, in others stood my ground—
For I knew that fortune in the theatre is especially fickle,
So I held on uncertainly to a certain task:
I began to repeat the same plays and help this same man produce
New plays. I worked hard so he wouldn't be discouraged.
I made sure they were seen, and when they were well-known,
They became a success. Thus, I gave this poet back his place
Almost cut off because of his enemies' libel
From his genius, his work and his own theatrical talents.
But if I had scorned his writings at that time
And had chosen to spend my energy disparaging him
So he'd end up with more time for playing than play-making,
I could have dissuaded him easily. He'd have written no more.
Now, as to what I seek, listen and for my sake be fair!
I bring before you Hecyra, again! I have never gotten through
This play in peace. Some misfortune looms over it.
And that misfortune your perspicacity
Will finally put to rest, if you agree to, of course.
When I first tried to put this play on, news of a boxing match,
A gathering of friends, some shouting, women's voices
Made me exit from the stage before my cue.
I decided to try my old habits on a new play,
Make another go of it. I put it on again.
Act One goes well. But in the meantime a rumor circulates
That gladiators will be fighting. A mob flocks in.
There's pushing and shoving, screaming and fights over seats.
In the meantime I could hardly keep my place.
But today there is no mob, only peace and quiet.
The time for me to act has finally come, for you to take
The opportunity to dignify this dramatic festival with us.
Don't let your name be used to give a chance for stardom
To only a few. See that your influence
Fosters and furthers my own influence.
Allow me to beg of you: this man who has entrusted
His genius to my tutelage, his person to your good faith,
Let him not be sieged by detractors who demean him derisively.
For my sake, hear his case and lend him silence,
So others may write and I can bring to the stage
New plays henceforth, what I've paid good money for.

From these prologues it is clear that in Terence's mind the foremost issues concerning Roman drama circulate around the production of the play and the nature of adapting Greek drama into Latin. Also evident here is the hierarchy of Roman theatre, where a dominus like Turpio truly dominates and playwrights-in-need like Terence and Caecilius must enlist his aid in a crisis.

But from our remove, what looms larger is the issue of the Romans' cultural appropriation of Greek drama, and there one thing stands out: Menander in the long run won the battle among Greek comic playwrights and finally emerged "the star of New Comedy." To wit, four of Terence's comedies (Andria, Heautontimoroumenos, Eunuchus, Adelphoe) are adaptations of Menander's work, and the remaining two (Hecyra, Phormio) come from Greek originals written by a later Menandrean imitator, Apollodorus of Carystus.

As the dust kicked up by Alexander and his cronies slowly settled, one thing at least began clear: Philemon, Diphilus and Menander's other rivals and predecessors were left sitting off stage for the most part. That is, when all the politics and pomp of the Dionysia finally died away and Greek culture became the world's possession, that quiet type of comedy championed by the master of character depiction took home the award for best drama of all time, leaving his rowdier and, to be frank, often funnier compatriots off stage. Humor, or so it seems history is telling us, is in the long run not the point of comedy ironically, it's irony.

And indeed irony lies at the heart of Terence's drama. His focus, like Menander's, rests mainly on drawing realistic and gently humorous—often hardly comical at all—portraits of stereotypical characters deployed in flexible and deceptively simple-sounding language. Throughout his scant six comedies are found many excellent examples of the subtle personality types Terence favored, "subtle" meaning "Menandrean." Indeed, there is reason to suppose they are actually Menander's own creations, copied faithfully out of the Greek.

Among the more memorable is the lovesick braggart soldier Thraso ("Bold") of The Eunuch, a man hopelessly smitten with affection for the beautiful prostitute Thais. Though he tries to stick up for himself, and at one point even attacks her house with an army—granted, a corps of cooks, the only force he could serve up in short order!—at the conclusion of the play Thraso capitulates to her completely and, just to be in her ravishing presence, agrees to pay handsomely for the privilege of watching her lie in the arms of his rival. A soldier maybe, a braggart definitely, but mostly just a man, this bold loser is, in fact, a sad weakling far more controlled than controlling. Though there is an actual eunuch in the play—and, of course, a false one since this is a comedy—the pravi eunuch in Terence's Eunuch is the pitiful warrior Thraso, the quintessential symbol of a capon's bravado.

An even more pitiful creation is the kind and indulgent father Micio of Terence's Adelphoe ("The Brothers"). Actually the uncle of his stepson Aeschinus, Micio has served as the boy's "father" for nearly all his young nephew's life. Micio and his brother Demea, Aeschinus' genetic father, have had a running battle for many years about the right way to bring up children, with leniency or strictness. Gentle Micio, the champion of tender love, has taken many blows to the ego—and the wallet!—because of Aeschinus' outrageous behavior ever since the boy embarked upon puberty, but his adoptive father's abiding love has always found a way to bring them back together.

In the course of the play, however, Aeschinus challenges his stepfather's patience to the very limit of endurance—he roughs up a pimp, steals a prostitute, and fathers a child by the poor girl next-door—yet in the end Micio, as always, capitulates and repairs the damage incurred through his beloved child's indiscretions. Finally, at the conclusion of the play, this fool for the love of his son has served up not only patience and money but his house and home and, though he balks at first when Aeschinus pleads with him to marry, is persuaded to give up even his prized bachelorhood, too. The thought underlying this play—what indeed runs beneath all of Terence's drama—seems to be that the love of whatever and in whatever form is, at the same time, the finest attribute of humanity and also what makes utter idiots of us all. It is hard to imagine a more Menandrean sentiment.


IV. Conclusion: What's So Roman about Roman Comedy?

In fact, there is little in Terence that does not scream Menander. But if there is anything substantively new in the Roman playwright's work—besides the forensic prologue which is really more innovative for what it omits (exposition of the plot) than what it includes—it is dramatic suspense. By not revealing the general parameters of the story to follow, Terence creates tension among his viewers who are now on an intellectual par with the characters. This is contrary to every Menander play known, indeed all of Greek drama since the Classical Age, and sets Terence's art in a new mode characteristic of virtually all stage works written after antiquity. In this essential respect, modern theatre begins with him.

To understand how and why Terence did this requires that one look back at Menander and the reasons his plays always reveal the outcome of the plot to the audience. While giving away the end at the very outset of a play may seem to us today like spoiling the story because we are acculturated to anticipate surprises and unforeseen plot twists, to the ancient Greeks the converse was true. Suckled as Menander's audience was on classical tragedy where the outcome of a dramatic plot is almost always a foregone conclusion—in Euripides, admittedly, it is sometimes the samo foregone conclusion—the Hellenistic crowd had come to expect to know right from the outset how a play would turn out. That made watching a tragedy more like being a god than a human, an Olympian sitting above the turmoil of mortal life or a scientist observing an experimental animal pinned and squirming in the laboratory dish below. All in all, Greek tragedy is clearly designed to make the viewer feel superior to the hero on stage, in the same way that the majority of the audience loomed over the stage action physically.

Given an audience inured to being seated well above the characters on stage, post-classical comic poets in Greece had little choice but to dispose their drama from this same vantage point. So in telling his viewers the end of the story, often through a philosophical abstraction such as Luck or Ignorance—gods that looked to post-classical Greece more divine, or at least more immediate, than Homer's all-powerful humanoids—Menander put those watching his plays in the flattering position of feeling like divinities gazing down upon the tragi-comedy of human life unfolding below. It's important to remember, also, that Menander's audience in Hellenistic Athens may well have needed this sort of boost to the ego. The world outside their theatre was doing a very poor job of making them feel divine.

But unlike Menander, Terence had no such history or pressure weighing down on him and his society. The Romans were booming in his day and therefore needed a pat on the back far less than their Hellenic counterparts. If the theatre in Rome did not make the viewers feel divine, so what? His strong and confident audience could take it—even tolerate being fooled by a plot twist or two—without feeling their intelligence slighted. It was only a play, after all, just some Greek riddle not worth too much time or mental exertion, certainly nothing to hang your ego on.

It was part and parcel of the Romans' general attitude toward drama, that theatre was not a refuge from anything but a day's work. To seek complexity in the arts at all was, to many of them, wasted effort where amusement and diversion should rule. Thus, no complex "three-actor rule" for the Romans, no stereotypical characters whose behavior is subtly predictable, no long, philosophical heart-to-hearts between fathers and sons—the Roman stage was a place for boisterous joy, for singing loud and long that life is good. And so it was!

And so irony reigns again, but in this case the irony that the Romans' "Aristophanic" zest is what sets their drama apart from the Greeks'. Whether or not the idea originated with them, it is now the heritage of Rome that plays ought at heart be just plain fun: no serious contemplation of life, no subtle analysis of character, no big political message, just a day at a festival—even if it's a funeral! And if amidst all the jokes and physical humor Terence or Plautus happened to inject some serious art and education into their drama, it seems unlikely any Romans minded, as long as the players primarily played. After all, in Latin ludus means both "play" and "a play."

Terms, Places, People and Things to Know
Caecilius Statius
Terence
Adelphoe
Sermo Purus
Hrotswitha (Hrotsvit)
Manuscripts
Aelius Donatus
Prologues
Andria
Luscius Lanuvinus
Contaminatio
Hecyra
Apollodorus of Carystus
Thraso
Micio
Dramatic Suspense

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Pogledajte video: Terence Crawford vs. Julius Indongo. ON THIS DAY FREE FIGHT. Crawford becomes Undisputed Champion (Maj 2022).