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Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3


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Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3 je bio napadni avion napravljen za zračni korpus američke vojske modifikacijom postojećeg posmatračkog aviona O-1 Falcon. O-1 je bio dvosjed sa jednim motorom, dvomotorni, napravljen sa okvirom od aluminijumskih cijevi povezanih čeličnim šipkama. Krila su bila u drvenim okvirima i prekrivena tkaninom. Krila su raspoređena, s dužim gornjim krilom postavljenim ispred kraćeg donjeg krila. Kako bi se poboljšala vidljivost pilota, središte gornjeg krila bilo je smješteno naprijed, a krajevi su mu pomereni unatrag za devet stupnjeva.

Standardni O-1B nosio je dva fiksna topa za prednju paljbu sinkronizirana za gađanje kroz luk elise i dva fleksibilna pištolja u stražnjoj kabini. Još dva fiksna pištolja za prednju paljbu dodana su A-3, smještena u donjem krilu tik izvan luka propelera kako bi im omogućila pucanje velikom brzinom. A-3 je takođe dobio bombe ispod donjih krila. A-3 je pokretao motor Curtiss V-1150-3 (D-12D), i imao je slične performanse kao O-1B.

Prototip A-3 proizveden je modifikacijom standarda O-1B (br. 27-243). Ovaj avion je kasnije vraćen u standard O-1B. Uslijedile su tri narudžbe za ukupno 66 A-3. Šest ovih aviona kasnije su razoružani, dobili su dvostruko upravljanje i korišteni su kao avioni za obuku s oznakom A-3A.

1928. AAC je izveo niz zračnih operacija u školama vojske umjesto uobičajenih manevara. Prvi A-3 stigli su na vrijeme da učestvuju u ovim vježbama, a njih devet je zajedno sa šesnaest O-2 formiralo napadnu eskadrilu.

A-3B

Još je 78 A-3 naručeno 1930. Ovi zrakoplovi su uključivali sva poboljšanja napravljena u Falconu između O-1B i O1-E i označeni su kao A-3B. Ove promjene uključivale su upotrebu Frize elerona, liftova s ​​balansama i oleo-pneumatskih amortizera. Do 1931.

Zračni korpus nije bio zadovoljan s A-3. Prihvatljivi zrakoplovi označeni su kao "standardni"-tj. Standardni bombarder ili standardni lovac zračnog korpusa, ali je A-3 označen kao "ograničen" ili "zamjenski" standard. Posljednji A-3B je otpisan u oktobru 1937.

A-3B (Curtissov model 44)
Motor: Curtiss D-12E (V-1150)
Snaga: 426ks
Raspon: 38ft 0in
Dužina: 27ft 7in
Visina: 10ft 3in
Težina prazna: 2,902lb
Bruto težina: 4,476lb
Maksimalna brzina: 139,4 km / h
Krstarenje: 111mph
Brzina uspona: 948ft/ sekundi
Plafon: 14,400ft
Domet: 647 milja sa 100 litara goriva
Topovi: Četiri fiksna i dva fleksibilna mitraljeza
Opterećenje bombe: 200 lb

Predloženo čitanje
Avion Curtiss, 1907-1947, Peter M Bowers (Amazon.co.uk)
Curtiss Aircraft, 1907-1947, Peter M Bowers (Amazon.com)


XA-8 Model 59, jedan prototip, serijski broj 30-387, dužine 32  ft 6  in (9.9  m), raspon krila 44  ft (13.4  m), bruto težina 5.413  lb (2.455 &# 160 kg) Curtiss V-1570-23 motor s direktnim pogonom Β ]

Servisni ispitni avion YA-8, 5 proizvedenih, serijski brojevi 32-344 do 32-348, bruto težina 5.706  lb (2.588   kg), Β ] jedan je prerađen u prototip YA-10 sa 625 & #160ks (466  kW) Pratt & amp Whitney Hornet radijalni motor i#912 ] Y1A-8 servisni testni avion, 8 izgrađenih, bruto težina 5.710  lb (2.590  kg) Β ] A-8 12 preimenovani Avioni YA-8 i Y1A-8 Β ] Y1A-8A posljednji Y1A-8 sa Curtiss V-1570-57 motorom sa reduktorom, dužine 10,24  in (10,24  in), bruto težina 6,287  lb (2.852   kg) Β ] A-8A preimenovani avioni Y1A-8A Β ] A-8B otkazani, zamijenjeni A-12 Shrike Β ]


Mogućnosti za zapošljavanje

Curtiss-Wright ima istoriju stalnog rasta, fokus na inovativnu tehnologiju i preduzetnički duh. Prilike za karijeru koje nude kreativne izazove, šanse za rad u globalnom okruženju i zadovoljstvo pomoći našim klijentima da budu uspješni na konkurentnom tržištu dostupne su u cijeloj organizaciji. Iskoristite priliku da se upoznate s Curtiss-Wright, istražite mogućnosti zaposlenja i razmislite o tome da postanete dio našeg tima.

Bez priloga agencija. NAPOMENA: Biografije poslane bilo kojem zaposleniku Curtiss-Wrighta bez trenutnog, potpisanog i važećeg ugovora sa timom za zapošljavanje Curtiss-Wright postat će vlasništvo Curtiss-Wrighta i neće se plaćati naknade za pretraživanje.


America the Cruisable

Za pionira vazduhoplovstva Glenna Curtissa, regija Finger Lakes na sjeveru države New York privukla je posebnu privlačnost. "Curtiss je bio fasciniran silaskom s vode", kaže Trafford Doherty, izvršni direktor muzeja Glenn H. Curtiss u Hammondsportu, rodnom gradu Curtissa, koji se nalazi na južnom kraju jezera Keuka (izgovara se kao "CUE-ka"). Godine 1908. nije bilo aerodroma, pa bi avion koji je mogao poletjeti i sletjeti na vodu bio daleko svestraniji od aviona na kopnu.

Iz ove priče

Kad se Amerika s dva motora pokazala slabom, Curtiss je dodao treći motor. Radio je na jezeru Keuka, ali se pokazalo da je potrošnja goriva prevelika za prelazak preko Atlantika. (NASM (SI Neg. #83-8674)) Specijalist Curtissovog muzejskog stroja Norm Brush, lijevo, i Lee Sackett, kopilot reprodukcije, imaju sjedala u prvom redu kao Amerika vuče se na krštenje. (James Wynbrandt) Prilikom lansiranja nove reprodukcije, entuzijasti iz Curtisa ponovo stvaraju krštenje originala 1914. godine Amerika. Žena u bijelom glumi krstitelja koji nije uspio razbiti bocu o trup. Posada je bocu pričvrstila na pramac i primijenila čekićem. (James Wynbrandt) U kabini, iako prostranoj, bilo je nekoliko instrumenata. (James Wynbrandt) Reprodukcija je dovela do brzih taksi staza, ali nije uspjela izletiti iz stiska vode. (James Wynbrandt) Sa Glennom Curtissom za kontrolama, Amerika prešao preko jezera Keuka 1914. "Najljepši leteći brod u kojem sam ikad sjedio - postojan kao kamen", izvijestio je, ali je ubrzo dovršio brojna poboljšanja. (NASM (SI NEG: #A-4813-A)) Na jedan ljetni dan 1914. godine, sretna gomila je došla na Amerikalansira na jezeru Keuka. Curtissov hidroaeroplan je usidren iza Amerika. (NASM (SI NEG: #94-18))

Foto galerija

Doherty, bivši pilot i stručnjak za kontrolu proizvodnje za Schweizer Aircraft Corporation u obližnjoj Elmiri, genijalan je turistički vodič. Dok priprema muzej za banket kojim se slavi peti godišnji vikend povratka hidroaviona, ističe artefakte i eksponate koji svjedoče o Curtissovom inventivnom geniju: bicikli, motori, motori, kućna prikolica i, naravno, avioni, od ranog "gurača" (s propelerom okrenutim prema stražnjem dijelu zrakoplova) preko poznate serije JN "Jenny" do kasnijih modela, uključujući Oriole i Robin.

Do 1911. godine, kada je Curtiss usavršio tehnologiju potrebnu za operacije hidroavionima, već je zaslužio titulu "najbržeg čovjeka na svijetu" napajanjem motocikla sa V-8 motorom koji je izgradio i vozeći ga brzinom od 136 km / h. Napravio je i prvi unaprijed najavljeni javni let u Sjedinjenim Državama (stekao je pilotsku dozvolu broj 1 od Aero Cluba u Americi), pobijedio je u prvoj međunarodnoj zračnoj utrci (stekao dozvolu pilota broj 2 iz F éd ération A & #233ronautique Internationale Louis Bl ériot držao je broj 1) i napravio prvi međugradski let između dva američka grada leteći iz Albanyja za New York. Kako bi se prevladalo hidrostatičko trenje —a sila usisavanja koja sprječava trupove i plovke hidroaviona da se oslobode vode —izumio je "korak", kutni prijelom na dnu trupova i plovki koji omogućava hidroavionu da se podigne iz vode. Ovaj korak se smatra njegovim najvažnijim doprinosom nauci o letenju na vodi. Prvi put usavršen na modelu E iz 1912. godine (koji se smatra prvim uspješnim letećim brodom na svijetu), izum mu je po drugi put u dvije godine donio prestižni Collier Trophy (prvi je bio izum "hidroaeroplana"). U međuvremenu je svoj rodni grad učinio vjerovatno svjetskom prijevozničkom prijestolnicom. Art Wilder, penzionisani mašinski inženjer i direktor restauratorske radnje u muzeju, kaže: "U Hammondsportu je između 1908. i 1914. učinjeno više nego u bilo kojem drugom periodu u istoriji aviona."

Turisti možda poznaju regiju Finger Lakes više po vinarijama nego po postignućima svog omiljenog sina, ali jednog oblačnog dana prošlog septembra posjetioci su bili dobro svjesni rada Glenna Curtissa. Došli su vidjeti muzejsku reprodukciju Curtissovog 1914. letećeg čamca, America, kako prvi put leti. Događaj je nadaleko prisutan na kalendarima. "Zbog ovoga smo došli čak iz Virdžinije", rekla je Joyce Miller, stojeći sa svojim mužem Hugom, koji je nosio majicu na kojoj je pisalo "Ko su Wilbur i Orville?"

Bilo je potrebno tri godine da se izgradi američka reprodukcija. 1999. volonteri muzejske restauratorske radnje dovršili su i leteli reprodukcijom letećeg čamca modela E iz 1913. godine, a 2004. završili su i leteli reprodukcijom A-1 trijade. Mornarica je kupila originalni A-1 1911. godine i#8212prvi servisni avion. (Ovo je, u kombinaciji s činjenicom da je Curtiss obučavao prvog pilota mornarice, zaslužio titulu oca mornaričkog zrakoplovstva.) No, muzej smatra Ameriku na neki način značajnijim zrakoplovom. Ugrađivao je propelere koji se okreću i zatvorenu kabinu, a to je bio prvi leteći čamac sa više motora,#8212dva, u početku, zatim tri. S rasponom krila 72 stope i praznom težinom od 3000 funti, bio je to mamut. "U usporedbi s drugim američkim zrakoplovima, Amerika je bila poput Starship Enterprisea", kaže Doherty.

Amerika je izgrađena da se takmiči za nagradu od 50.000 dolara koju nudi londonski Daily Mail za prvi transatlantski prijelaz letećom mašinom. Rodman Wanamaker, sin osnivača robne kuće Philadelphia Johna Wanamakera, naručio je izgradnju, dajući Curtissu 25.000 dolara za izgradnju onoga što je postalo Model H Boat, Curtiss-Wanamaker America. Wanamaker je namjeravao let udvostručiti kao stogodišnji pozdrav prema Gentovskom ugovoru iz 1814, kojim je okončan rat 1812, i želio je da Britanci i Amerikanci podijele tu čast. Cyril Porte iz Kraljevske mornarice proglašen je pilotom, a George Hallett, mehaničar i zaposlenik Curtissa, bio je kopilot. Obojica su bili prisutni 22. juna 1914. godine, kada je Amerika krštena u Hammondsportu pred 2.000 gledalaca. Jedan od Hallettovih izazovnih poslova bila je zamjena svjećica u letu (svjećice tada nisu dugo trajale). Pitamo se kako se osjećao prema mogućnosti da to učini u nemirnom vazduhu, lošem vremenu i večernjoj tami.

U ljeto 1914. Amerika je prošla opsežna ispitivanja. Jedva mjesec dana prije početka leta izbio je Prvi svjetski rat. Porte je opozvana u Englesku i let je obustavljen.

Više od 50 godina kasnije, Hallett je u svojim memoarima razmišljao o pročišćenoj misiji: "U to vrijeme nitko od nas nije vjerovao da nismo mogli uspješno obaviti let, ali izgleda da se osvrćući na to, nakon nekoliko godina i mnogo iskustva, čini za mene da nismo uspjeli. " Hallett je zaključio da bi nedostatak sistema za zagrijavanje rasplinjača, vibracije sposobne uzdrmati labave vodove za hlađenje motora ili zaleđivanje letelice bile osuđene na let. (Zrakoplov koji je konačno napravio prvi let preko Atlantika bio je također hidroavion izgrađen u Curtissu, NC-4, jedini od tri NC-a koji su pokušali 1919.)

Britanska vojska kupila je Ameriku i drugi model H za svoj program razvoja patrolnih aviona, zajedno s brojem letećih brodova H-4 Small America. Nijedan model H nije preživio. "Nisu izgubljeni u nesrećama", kaže Doherty. "Testirani su do uništenja. To je bilo surovo okruženje, a hidroavioni su imali kratak vijek trajanja."
No, osnovni dizajn trupa je preživio, prilagođen za veće obalne i protupodmorničke patrolne zrakoplove Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva iz Prvog svjetskog rata, počevši od Felixstowe F-1. Curtiss je razvio derivate i prodao ih američkoj i carskoj ruskoj mornarici. I Amerika je živjela u trupovima aviona od Pan Am-ovih Boeing 314 Clippersa do PBY Catalinas do jednoletnog čuda Howarda Hughesa, slučajno označenog i kao H-4. Treba samo uporediti široka, kvrgava dna američkih potomaka sa veselim sponzorima koji izviru iz američkog trupa kako bi vidjeli porodičnu sličnost. "Svi veliki svetski leteći brodovi imaju krvne loze [dopirući] do ovog zrakoplova", kaže Jim Poel, bivši kapetan aviokompanije, vlasnik republičkog vodozemca RC-3 Seabee i pilot reproducirane Amerike.

Ne postoji potpuni skup nacrta za originalnu Ameriku. Muzej je svoju reprodukciju zasnovao na djelomičnim planovima, fotografijama i zapisima o građevinskom materijalu. Okvir je od jasena, a smreka Sitka, rebra krila su borova. Kao i original, plovilo je obojeno tamnocrveno. Umjesto životinjskih ljepila i svile koju je Curtiss koristio za pokrivanje svog modela H, tim za ponovno stvaranje koristio je Polyfibre, sintetičku zrakoplovnu tkaninu, sličnu Dacronu.


Glasnik istorije Buffala

*Tromjesečnik Nacionalnog udruženja za zaštitu od požara, Vol., 36, No. 2, oktobar 1942, str. 137-138.
"Kada se avion srušio kroz krov, benzin ispušten iz rezervoara trupa izazvao je izuzetno vruć požar. Zaposleni u tvornici odmah su oglasili alarm preko tri privatne vatrodojavne kutije, a 90 pripadnika vatrogasne jedinice postrojenja odgovorilo je i odlično obavilo posao u gašenju požara. Njima je pomogao rad 208 automatskih prskalica na sistemu mokrih cijevi. Srećom, padajući avion nije ozbiljno oštetio cijev za raspršivanje, iako su 174-inčna cijev za prskanje i 6-inčna komercijalna vodovodna linija suspendovane sa Ove cijevi su ispuštale znatne količine vode koja je poplavila veliko područje.
Inženjer postrojenja dežurni nakon što je čuo sudar, odmah je konsultovao mjerač pritiska vode i primijetio da je pritisak pao na dvadeset funti. Započeo je 1500 g.p.m. vatrogasnu pumpu na električni pogon i počeo zagrijavati 1500 g.p.m. parna turbinska pumpa koja je puštena u rad. Na obje pumpe održan je pritisak od 75 funti po kvadratnom inču.
Upit primjena pjene i ugljičnog dioksida bila je od pomoći u sprječavanju širenja vatre pri izgaranju benzina na površini vode. Procjenjuje se da je požar bio pod kontrolom za 15 minuta, a potpuno je ugašen za 30 minuta.
“Jesen gorućeg aviona posmatrali su pripadnici Engine Co. 7 iz vatrogasne službe Buffalo, stacionirani na aerodromu Buffalo. Ova kompanija, pod pretpostavkom da će avion pasti u polju izvan zgrade, odgovorila je u 17:15. s hitnim kamionom opremljenim opremom od pjene i ugljičnog dioksida i s pumpom od 1000 galona. Nije korišten niti jedan aparat, ali vatrogasno društvo je pružilo vrijednu uslugu u opremanju jednog od privatnih vodovodnih crijeva, uklanjanju ozlijeđenih do stanice prve pomoći, ispumpavanju poplavljenog područja ispod razine tla i pokrivanju oštećenog krova. 8230. ” (Wright. NFPA Quarterly, oktobar 1942, 137.)

Izjava o upravljanju: "Što se tiče herojstva radnika Curtissa-ne mogu reći dovoljno. Mnogi su riskirali ozljede, pa čak i živote spašavajući svoje kolege zaposlenike od plamena koji je uslijedio nakon nesreće. Neki od spasilaca su među onima koji su sada u bolnicama." "Čuvari Curtissa, članovi dobrovoljnih jedinica za gašenje požara i zračnih napada i pojedinci iz uredskog i tvorničkog osoblja, izvršavali su ove dodatne dužnosti ne oklijevajući ni u procjeni troškova ni u razmišljanju o svojoj ličnoj opasnosti.
"Svi drugi radnici u tvornici u to vrijeme, koji možda nisu direktno učestvovali, pokazali su svoju smirenost svojom smirenošću i načinom na koji su ostali na svom poslu. Želio bih svima izraziti srdačnu zahvalu uprave, uključujući i vanjske agencije koje su tako spremno pružile njihovu pomoć. Velika je počast onima na bojnom polju, što oni na proizvodnom frontu danas normalno nastavljaju s pravim američkim borbenim duhom. "


Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi motor i elisa

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici istaknuti su motor i propeleri Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi motor

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici je istaknut motor Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi trup trupa

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici istaknut je trup Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovnu upotrebu ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Primjenjuju se uslovi upotrebe

Postoje ograničenja za ponovno korištenje ovog medija. Za više informacija posetite stranicu Uslovi korišćenja kompanije Smithsonian.

IIIF pruža istraživačima bogate mogućnosti metapodataka i pregleda slika za poređenje djela u zbirkama kulturne baštine. Više - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Srebrni i plavi monoplan sa suncobranom sa 2 krila i Szekely SR-3 cilindričnim motorom O snage 45 KS.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior u Centru Udvar-Hazy

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom tridesetih godina prošlog vijeka i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi motor i elisa

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom tridesetih godina prošlog vijeka i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici istaknuti su motor i propeleri Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi motor i elisa

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom tridesetih godina prošlog vijeka i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici istaknuti su motor i propeleri Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi motor

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver ranih 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici je istaknut motor Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlađi trup trupa

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver ranih 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu. Na ovoj slici istaknut je trup Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom tridesetih godina prošlog vijeka i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije Velike depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom tridesetih godina prošlog vijeka i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona "svakog čovjeka" u tom periodu.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior u Restoratorskoj radnji

Status prikaza:

Ovaj objekt je izložen u Boeing Aviation Hangaru u Steven F. Udvar-Hazy centru u Chantillyju, VA.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior bio je umjereni sportski avion proizveden prije depresije za široku javnost. Njegova pristupačnost, mogućnost kratkog polja, čvrsta konstrukcija, mala brzina rukovanja i dobra vidljivost učinili su ga lakim i sigurnim avionom za let. Junior je ubrzo postao najpopularniji avion tipa flivver početkom 1930-ih i predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu u kretanju aviona & quoteveryman & quot u tom periodu.

Karl H. White, Walter Beech i H. Lloyd Child dizajnirali su i proizveli Skeeter, kasnije preimenovan u Junior, koji je pokretao 3-cilindrični motor Szekely SR-3-O sa 45 KS. Avion Muzeja ima bogatu dugogodišnju pozadinu u krugu aeromitinga koji izvodi rutinu & quotFlying Farmer & quot u kojoj "quotbystander" pokušava upravljati avionom sa komičnim, ali sigurnim rezultatima. Poklonjena je Muzeju 1959. godine.

CW-1 je bio sportski avion umjerenih cijena proizveden prije depresije za privlačenje masovnog tržišta. Manji i jednostavniji od kabinskih aviona, poput Curtiss Robina, Curtiss-Wright je dizajnirao Junior posebno za niskobudžetnog pilota sportaša i operatora fiksne baze koji su željeli ponuditi vrijeme leta po stopi koja je dostupna prosječnom letećem stanovništvu. Lak za kupovinu, lak za let i jeftin za upravljanje, Junior je uskoro postao skoro najpopularniji avion tipa flivver u narednih nekoliko godina.

CW-1 izrastao je iz drvene strukture kasnih 1920-ih, monoplana u obliku suncobrana pod nazivom Buzzard, koju je dizajnirao Orval H. & quotBud & quot; Snyder, a pokretao ga je 2-cilindrični motor ABC Scorpion. Zanimljivo je da je Snyder radio s Jean Rocheom u odjelu inženjeringa u McCook Fieldu u Daytonu, Ohio, i obojica su u slobodno vrijeme samostalno dizajnirali lake avione. 1930., Ralph S. Damon i Walter Beech, rukovodioci Curtiss-Robertson divizije korporacije Curtiss-Wright (Curtiss-Robertson postala je Curtiss-Wright Airplane Company), odlučili su prodati laki avion kako bi se takmičili sa Aeronca C- 2, Rocheov dizajn i američki orao koji su se uskoro trebali pojaviti na tržištu. They obtained the design rights to the Buzzard, but the aircraft had such poor performance that it had to be redesigned.

The three persons credited with the certificated design of the Junior, Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child, labored to first produce the Skeeter, powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Skeeter's only resemblance to the Buzzard was that it was a pusher-type monoplane. It was first test-flown in October 1930, but engineering problems had to be solved before it would be ready for production. Later in the year the Skeeter was renamed the Junior and by December the aircraft was again test-flown and pronounced ready for production. The production Juniors were two-place, open cockpit parasol wing monoplanes, powered by the Szekely SR-3-O engine. By June 1931, 125 Juniors, each priced at $1,494, had been sold. It is estimated that at least 270 were built through 1931 and that 261 of those were issued registration numbers.

Company promotional material attributed the aircraft's success to price ("built to sell for the price of an automobile in the medium price class") and quality. The Junior had many admirable qualities: easy and safe in flight, short field capability, low handling speed, sturdy construction, low wing loading, and good visibility for the pilot that gave "amateur pilots factors which have hitherto been lacking in available airplanes." A pilot could take off in a Junior in as little as 200 feet and land in 250 feet it cruised at 70 miles per hour and had an gentle stall speed of 35 miles per hour.

While much of this was true, the Junior had its problems. The Szekely engine was temperamental and had a habit of occasionally throwing a cylinder. This was solved by tying a steel cable around the cylinder heads, which although it could not keep the cylinder from being thrown, kept a thrown cylinder from being blown back into the propeller. Moreover, some accidents occurred on the ground when passengers in the rear cockpit walked into the propeller after deplaning. The Junior was modified as an amphibian and called the Duck, but an accident in which a pilot was killed after he put the aircraft into a shallow, inverted dive seriously damaged the aircraft's reputation.

That accident and decreasing sales put an end to the production of the Junior. Orders had fallen off drastically between the middle of 1931 and the end of the year, and by early 1932, sales came to a halt. Meanwhile, Karl White left for the Naval Aircraft Factory and Walter Beech went to Wichita, Kansas, to form his own company. Curtiss-Wright officials in Buffalo, New York, terminated design and production of the Junior and the St. Louis plant began producing the T32 Condor instead. Curtiss-Wright's brief foray into the private aircraft market ended.

Despite its brief history, the Curtiss-Wright Junior is a significant aircraft in the NASM collection because it represents a milestone in the so-called "everyman" aircraft movement in the United States. This movement, which began before the Depression and lasted over a period of two decades, sought to produce a mass-market, affordable, personal aircraft that would appeal to the average American citizen. The Junior also represented a significant diversion for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, which was almost exclusively oriented to the production of military and heavy commercial aircraft during that time in its history.

This Junior, serial number 1143, NC 10965, was built in the summer of 1931 but the early years are unknown. In 1934, Les Maudlin of Brownsville, Texas, received a renewed license for the Junior after work was completed on the wing - fixing loose aileron hinges, nuts and bolts and drag wires. The total aircraft flight time was listed as 636 hours. G.C. Acord of Dallas, Texas, who owned the aircraft in 1945 and 1946, had the airframe nearly rebuilt and recovered. L.M. Angevine and R.C. Christopher of Bainbridge, Georgia, bought the aircraft in 1950 and noted in 1954 that it had 127 flight hours "since new" and that the original log book was lost. He apparently did not have access to the 1934 report with earlier recorded hours.

During these years, the owners flew the Junior on air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine, a stunt in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the aircraft with comical but safe results (i.e. easy-to-fly aircraft). For this routine, the aircraft was modified by removing the fuselage fabric, painting the wings in bright polka dots, and adding a 45 hp Lycoming engine.

Robert E. Maytag of the Maytag Company, Newton, Iowa, bought the Junior in 1954 and flew it as a private sport plane before storing it for several years. He donated it to the Museum on June 22, 1959. Upon donation the flight hours were listed as 137 however, when added to the hours listed on 1934 paperwork this Junior appears to have a minimum of 773 flight hours on the airframe or at least the remaining original parts.

A volunteer restoration team working one day a week restored the Junior to its original configuration from 2001 to 2012. Once again the wings needed rebuilding as did the nosebowl, mud flaps and more. Juniors originally came in red or blue, both with silver wings blue paint was found on the steel tube frame and so it was painted blue. Goodyear Aviation donated Goodyear balloon tires, Tom Murphy of Oregon donated seats belts, and aircraft restorer Ken Hyde donated a Szekely engine and Flottorp propeller several other parts or plans for them came from owners of the few remaining Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Juniors.


The first ship the SOC was assigned to was the USS Marblehead in November 1935 by the end of the decade, the SOC had replaced its predecessor throughout the fleet. Production came to an end in 1938. By 1941, most battleships had transitioned to the Vought OS2U Kingfisher and cruisers were expected to replace their aging SOCs with the third generation SO3C Seamew. The SO3C, however, suffered from a weak engine and plans to adopt it as a replacement were scrapped. The SOC, despite being a craft from an earlier generation, went on to credibly execute its missions of gunfire observation and limited range scouting missions.

Through the first six months of naval service, the SOC was known as the XO3C-1, ΐ] The designation was changed to SOC when it was decided to merge its scouting and observation roles. The SOC was not called the Seagull until 1941, when the U.S. Navy began the wholesale adoption of popular names for aircraft in addition to their alpha-numeric designations. The name 'Seagull' had earlier been given to two civil Curtiss aircraft, a Curtiss Model 18 and a Model 25, both converted Curtiss MF flying boats. Α]

When operating as a seaplane, returning SOCs would land on the relatively smooth ocean surface created on the sheltered side of the vessel as it made a wide turn, after which the aircraft would be winched back onto the deck. Β ]

When the SOC had been replaced by the OS2U Kingfisher, most remaining airframes were converted into trainers, and were used until 1945. Γ] But in a strange twist of history, with the failure of the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, many SOCs in second line service were returned to front line units starting in late 1943 and saw service aboard warships in the combat zone for the rest of World War II. This is one of the few instances in aviation history of an older aircraft type that was retired or sent to second line service, replacing the new aircraft type, that was supposed to replace it. Δ]


A Series (A-1 kroz A-8)

Between 1940 and June 1941, the USAAC used an A-for-Aerial Target designation category for radio-controlled aircraft used as gunnery targets. However, these designations could be easily confused with the A-for-Attack series, and therefore the A-series was replaced by two new categories: OQ for subscale target drones, and PQ for full-scale aircraft with provision for an on-board pilot. Existing A-series drones were redesignated in the appropriate new category with their model numbers unchanged. The redesignations affected only two models, the Radioplane A-2 (becoming the OQ-2) and the Culver A-8 (becoming the PQ-8). Both OQ- and PQ-series were then continued from their first members, leaving OQ-1 and PQ-1 through -7 unassigned. Because the PQ-series therefore started off from the last A-series target, the PQ-series was effectively a continuation of the A-series.

Fleetwings A-1

The A-1 was built around 1940 as a small aerial gunnery target, probably designed specifically for this purpose. It had a wingspan of around 6 m (20 ft), was powered by a 60 kW (80 hp) piston engine, and could reach a speed of 290 km/h (180 mph) at altitudes of at least 3000 m (10000 ft). The A-1 was flown unmanned and controlled by radio commands from the ground. There is no data available on the number of A-1s built or their service career, but the target was most likely no longer used by mid-1941.

Radioplane A-2

The A-2 was redesignated in June 1941 as OQ-2, q.v.

Curtiss A-3

In the late 1930s, the U.S. Navy converted a few surviving obsolete Curtiss N2C-2 Fledgling training biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. These drones were modified with a tricycle landing gear, and could be remote-controlled either from a ground station or another aircraft. In 1940, the Army tested at least one of these conversions as the A-3 powered target.

Photo: © Gene Palmer, Aerofiles
N2C-2 drone (A-3)

Douglas A-4

In 1940, the USAAC converted 15 BT-2B and two BT-2BI basic trainer biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. These aircraft were initially designated BT-2BR i BT-2BG, respectively, but these designations were eventually dropped in favour of A-4 for both types of conversions.

Photo: USAF
A-4

The rear cockpit was faired over, but for check-out flights the A-4 could still be flown as a single-seater. To facilitate landings under remote control, the A-4 was fitted with a tricycle undercarriage and a steerable nosewheel. The drone was controlled in flight by a BT-2CR (modified BT-2C) control plane. Photographic evidence suggests that some A-4s were still in the inventory as late as August 1941, when the PQ series for full-scale targets had already been introduced. Said photos are actually labeled "PQ-4" in some cases, but this was most likely not an official designation.

Boeing A-5

The designation A-5 was reserved in 1940 for the conversion of a single Boeing P-12E biplane fighter to a radio-controlled target drone. However, around that time the Army abandoned its plans to convert obsolete service aircraft to target drones, and therefore the A-5 never materialized.

Photo: Air Force Museum Foundation
P-12E

Douglas A-6

The designation A-6 was reserved for conversions of surplus Douglas O-38 biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. However, no O-38s were converted to A-6 configuration. The O-38 was very similar to the BT-2 trainer, and therefore the A-6 would probably have been similar to the A-4.

Photo: © Gene Palmer, Aerofiles
O-38B

Bell A-7 Airacobra

The designation A-7 was reserved for conversions of Bell P-39 Airacobra fighters to radio-controlled target drones. No P-39s were converted to A-7s by the U.S. Army Air Force, but the U.S. Navy converted at least three P-39Qs to drone configuration and tested them under the designations XTDL-1 and F2L-1K.

Photo: The Aviation History On-Line Museum
P-39Q

Culver A-8 Cadet

The A-8 was redesignated in June 1941 as PQ-8, q.v.


P-40 Recovery in Russia

Dear Readers,
We present a report by Mark Sheppard on recovery efforts of P-40C and P-40E in Russia.
All material presented here is copyrighted and can not be reprinted and/or duplicated in any form without the written consent of their respective authors.

Curtiss-Wright P-40C (C/N 16194) Serial 41-13390

Nick Grey of the Fighter Collection sat in the cockpit of the Curtiss P40-C in Russia prior to it returning for restoration. (Fighter Collection)

Građevinarstvo

The Curtiss-Wright model H81 A-3 was manufactured for the US Army Air Corps between March and May 1941. The order number was W-535, account 15802 and it cost the US Government $40,148.00. Curtiss-Wright completed 193 P-40Cs in the Curtiss construction block of 16104-16296. The Allison engine order was for a V-1710-33, which originally would have been in the 41.35. range as seen on other P40Cs in the same block. The P-40C described was completed in Olive Drab 41 to upper surfaces and Neutral Gray to the under-side. The pre-war star and meatball was on the upper surfaces, whilst the underside of the wings had a US ARMY marking in large black letters.

Curtiss-Wright P-40C factory number 16194 was the 90th P-40C manufactured at the main production facility in Buffalo, NY. It was completed in March 1941 with the serial 41-13390 and was then issued to Holabird, Central District, on 9 April 1941. It is thought that this P-40C did not have any previous USAAC service. To support this, there are no listings on the record card and no evidence on the recovered airframe of any previous markings or painted rudder.

It became the property of the Office of Defense Aid (ST-41-24390) on 11 June 1941. P-40C 41-13390 was one of ten P-40Cs purchased by the British to be included within their Tomahawk IIB order, of which the British ordered 1180 examples. (The ten were 41-13389/13390/13396-13401/13406/13407.) Serial 41-13390 was allocated to the Soviet Union as part of the Defense Aid Program in September 1941.

Recovery

The basically complete P40C at the Fighter Collection hanger at Duxford and still in its transportation cradle.
(Mark Sheppard)

The P-40C was located by satellite photography in a desolate part of Russia in 1993. It was recovered from behind Murmashi, a rail depot south of Murmansk, where it had crash-landed during WWII.

The pilot undertook an emergency wheels-up landing in the tundra. Very little damage occurred in the crash-landing, except to the radiator chin cowl assembly. The pilot, and possibly others, then removed the radio and gun sight.
The P-40C was recovered by helicopter, dismantled, and eventually returned to the UK, where the restoration was being planned by The Fighter Collection at Duxford.

The ID located on the tail oleo showed it is P-40C-CU Model 81A-3, serial 41-13390. The serial number was also located on the oil tank. The fuselage longerons, back armor, and other panels were stamped with the construction number 194. Other panels and components clearly stated B model and these are thought to be from the production line where the B models and Tomahawk IIBs ran into the C-model batch. There was very little difference between these models and parts certainly just ran through.

The early ‘star and meatball’ emblem (later replaced with just the standard American star) on the side of the P40C.
Over it can be the individual Russian aircraft number ‘53’. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40 was clearly marked up with a tactical number 󈧹’ on the faded camouflage. All upper surfaces had been scoured nearly down to bare metal during over 50 years of snow storms. The old-style American star was faintly visible on the fuselage side. The US ARMY on the underside of the wings was clearer and had been overpainted, and red stars had been applied. There was evidence also of brown and green camouflage and possibly the outline of an RAF roundel, also on the side of the fuselage. It is not known whether this was possibly added before being completed for the US Army or after it was taken over by the British Purchasing Commission. A number of the engine cowling panels had clearly come from a British Tomahawk IIB (with green and brown camouflage), and could have been added during its operational period in Russia.
The P-40C had clearly suffered combat damage and there were small-caliber bullet holes along the fuselage and to the wings. The oil tank was holed, which most likely led to the loss of the aircraft. It was clear, though, that repairs had been undertaken previously, particularly to one wing tip (according to V. Romanenko, it could be the result of a ramming attack).
The engine recovered from the airframe was a British-ordered Allison V1710-33 with UK War Office stamps and the number A.200541. This was one of 1,000 Allison V-1710 engines (A.199588 through to A.200587) ordered against Contract No A-196.

Istorija

The full fuselage and engine cowlings. Note how long the engine is.
Some of the cowling panels had clearly originally come from a British Tomahawk IIB (P40C)
and were camouflaged brown and green. (Mark Sheppard)

The Soviet Union received their first 47 Tomahawk IIBs in September 1941. They were assembled by an RAF team at Yagodnik airfield near Archangel and from here were flight- tested by USAAC pilot Lt. Zemke (later Col ‘Hub’ Zemke, 56 FG 8AF) and less so by Lt. Alison. The first two Tomahawks, serials AK300 with Allison A.200767 and AK242 with Allison engine A.200663, were handed over to the Soviet Air Force on 5 October 1941. Unfortunately, in both cases, within half an hour both had crashed/emergency landed. It was found that both had suffered gear, generator-drive gear, and accessory-drive gear failure. It appeared that the generator-drive gear on these aircraft had not received the necessary modification prior to being dispatched for the Soviet Union! As of 28 November 1941, the Soviets had suffered 19 failures with their Tomahawks due to no modification and they were not too happy! The Soviets grounded all their Tomahawks until it was all sorted out.

According to Soviet research data, the Curtiss-Wright P40C 41-13350 arrived at Murmansk in early 1942 by convoy. It was then most probably assembled and flight tested at Yagodnik airfield before being assigned to a fighter regiment. The Soviets recorded American-supplied P-40 aircraft by their construction (factory) number, so in the case of 41-13390 it was recorded as �’ as painted on the pilot’s back armor (the British-supplied aircraft were easier to inventory as they were recorded by the RAF serial). The first entry for �’ was the following:

P-40 �” was issued new to the 147 IAP VVS 14 Army (147th Fighter Regiment, 14th Army) in early 1942. On 5 February 1942, at 1340 CET (Central European Time) P-40 �’ suffered engine failure and had to make a belly-landing at Murmashi airfield, south of Murmansk. It was considered as “medium damaged” (30-50%). Pilot was Sr. Lt. N. V. Jurilin, who survived unhurt.

After repairs and with a new Allison engine fitted, it was issued to 20 GIAP (Guards Fighter Regiment) on 12 July 1942. This regiment had 20 P-40s on strength, 16 of which were operational. 147 IAP became a Guards Unit on 7 March 1942, becoming 20 GIAP. The records mention Tomahawk �” as powered by a British Air Ministry-ordered Allison C-15 No A.200541. Whether this was from a damaged Tomahawk IIB or a crated spare is still unknown. At this time, the 20 GIAP was a part of the 1SAD (Combined Air Division) of Soviet Air Force (VVS) and was on the Karelian Front as part of the defense of Murmansk.

A photo of P40C ‘58’ from 20gvIAP after a ‘Taran’ (intentional air collision to bring down another aircraft – often fatal). Note the ‘58’ is in the same style as the ‘53’. These marking type were often individual to each unit. (Carl Guest)

On 27 September 1942, the Soviet War Diary records the following combat activities:
1617 – 1723 hrs (CET), five Hurricanes of 837 IAP covered the air over own bases when nine P-40s of 20 GIAP and one P-39 of 19 GIAP were engaged in combat with eighteen Bf-109s at altitudes of 4000 – 5000meters. The air battle lasted 25 minutes. The Russians claimed three Bf-109s shot down (Luftwaffe records report undercarriage damage to a Bf-109F-4 of 7./JG5). Russian losses were two aircraft from 837 IAP and two aircraft from 20 GIAP (Jr. Lt. N. A. Fikljunin was shot down and killed in a Hurricane, Sr. Sgt. P. K. Prochan made a force landing in a Hurricane 3km east of Shonguj, Sgt A. P. Pakov was shot down and parachuted to safety from his P-40 and, finally, Major Ermakov belly-landed his P-40 �”.

The last available record for �” is on 5 January 1944, when it was written off from the inventory of 20 GIAP of the 1st Combined Air Division. It was a common Soviet practice not to strike off wrecked equipment immediately (the Soviet Navy did the same with ships and aircraft) until a period of time after the event. There is no evidence of P-40 �” being on the inventory list of 20 GIAP on 31 December 1942, or on the inventory of 7 VA (Air Army) on 1 June 1943. It can safely be assumed that 27 September 1942 was when �” was lost and 5 January 1944 was the date that �” was eventually written off from Soviet records.

Curtiss-Wright P40E (C/N 16814) Serial 41-13570

Up she comes. The P40E brakes through the surface with the remains of the red star
on the fin and the tactical number ‘51’. (Unknown copyright)

Građevinarstvo

In late 1941, the new P-40E ‘Warhawk’, as the whole production was now named, began rolling off the production lines in Buffalo, NY. The Curtiss-Wright model H87 A-3 was manufactured for the US Army and to fill British contracts through 1941 and well into 1942. The US Army received 2320 models and 1500 were ordered by the British, who named this model the ‘Kittyhawk 1A’.

The P-40E in question was completed within the smallest batch of E models produced, towards the end of 1941. Many of the completed components were dated 󈫸.41”. This P-40E was supplied with the Curtiss construction number 16814 and the serial 41-13570. The order number was W-535 ac15802 and it cost the US government $39,628.00. Curtiss-Wright completed 79 machines within this block (construction numbers 16737-16815) and the serials 41-13521 to 41-13599 were assigned to them.

The Allison engine was a V-1710-39 that had the construction number 42-33729. The P-40E had been painted in Olive Drab 41 on the upper surfaces and Neutral Gray on the underside. It seems it had already been earmarked for the Soviet Union as it had been completed in nothing more than the serial number and stenciling. There was no sign of the American star having ever been applied.

Another photos of the P40E coming ashore. The tail unit has already been removed. Note damage to the starboard wingtip from when the aircraft hit the water. (Unknown copyright)

It was accepted by the USAAC on 23 January 1942 and on the same day 41-13570 was assigned to Defense Aid. It was then transported to one of the East-coast ports and loaded aboard a ship along with other Lend- Lease supplies bound for the Soviet Union.

Recovery

The P40E back on land. The white ‘51’ is very clear and also the damage to the cockpit area. (Unknown copyright)

The P-40E was recovered from its watery grave of 55 years on 31 August 1997. Although the lake was relatively shallow, the aircraft was brought to the surface using flotation gear and gradually brought to the shore. In shallower water the tail plane and fin were removed along with the ammunition boxes and covers to the wings. The P40-E seemed remarkably complete and well-preserved.

Once the P-40E was back on shore, other parts were recovered from the lake bottom, including the armored windscreen, canopy, and lower engine parts. The P-40E was then airlifted by Ka-25K helicopter to a site closer to civilization to be dismantled. Additional lifting support was required to the engine due to the damage which had occurred in the crash landing. Unfortunately, during the lift further damage was sustained to the port trailing edge by the use of lifting chains instead of webbing.

When lowered, the P-40E could be seen fully for the first time in 55 years. It could be clearly seen that it had not been overpainted and still retained the Olive Drab and Neutral Gray as it had been applied when it left the factory. A white painted number 󈬣” had been applied to the fuselage sides red stars had also been applied over the fin/rudder and also to the underside of the wings. Interestingly, there were no red stars on the upper surface of the wings that were often applied on Lend-Lease aircraft.

The damage to the cockpit skins and longerons can be clearly seem. This probably occurred from the crash landing and hitting the lake bottom. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40E was clearly marked up with all the standard stenciling. It had the maximum weights and other technical stencils on the port side of the cockpit and also located there was the serial 41-13570, confirming it was an E model. The Curtiss construction number �” was located around the whole aircraft and seems to have been stamped on all of the fillets and removable panels. The most identifiable number was painted at the top of the pilot’s back armor.

The E model carried six .50-caliber (12.7mm) heavy machine guns and up to 280 rounds of ammunition. The corroded ammunition was removed and made safe. The ammunition boxes and guns themselves were in remarkably good condition and the etched panels were clearly readable. The cockpit instrumentation and control stick were all there. Generally the P-40E was recovered complete, albeit with some damage from the crash landing.

The P-40E had suffered only slight combat damage prior to its final flight. There were a couple of light-caliber bullet holes to the fin and tailplane, which had been patched. More recent combat damage consisted of two visible bullet holes that had occurred at a very shallow angle, skimming the skin. One hole was to the tail plane and another to the engine cowling. The only damage that seemed to have contributed to its loss was to the lower starboard side of the engine casing, which appeared to have resulted in the loss of coolant. The exhausts were of the early type-three sets of two through the cowling. They were of the round type, not the later flattened group of six exhausts carried on the majority of E models.

After being flown in by helicopter the P40 was ready to be dismantled. First to be removed was the Allison engine. (Unknown copyright)

The only effects from the water seemed to be corrosion to the ferrous elements. For example, the metal handles for the ammunition boxes had rusted away. Likewise, the magnesium cam covers and items on the rear of the Allison engine had literally dissolved to nothing. The wheel hubs that appeared to have been protected more by the silt looked to be intact and the tires were still inflated.

The P40E being flown out ready for dismantling. No comment on the methods or the damage inflicted to the trailing edges! (Unknown copyright)

It was probably the loss of engine coolant, leading to an overheating engine, that forced the pilot to undertake an emergency landing. Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev decided not to try to crash-land on the unforgiving tundra, which was covered by stunted trees and large rocks. Instead he opted to put the P-40E down on one of the numerous lakes in the area. Possibly still in combat, the P-40E seems to have hit the water at a steep ascent rather than a shallow glide. On hitting the water, the large radiator housing caused the P-40E to decelerate rapidly. The spinner received a long flat dent to one face and one propeller blade snapped completely off. The radiator probably dug in and acted as a brake, bending the fuselage along its axis to such an extent that it snapped both upper longerons on the canopy rail! Fifty odd rivets were also blown to the top skin above the port undercarriage rotation point due to the hard impact. The P-40E then skewed around, pivoting on its wing, a maneuver that produced the damage visible to the starboard wing tip. On gradually settling down, the pilot clambered out and made for shore whilst his P-40E sank below the surface.

The anodised ammunition boxes and instruction plate were in very good condition.
Only the steel handle had corroded. (Mark Sheppard)

According to Soviet records, the P-40E arrived in spring 1942 to a port, most likely Murmansk. The Soviet records list the loss by the aircraft type, construction, and engine number, which showed the following information:
P-40E �”, engine No 42-33729 of 20 GIAP, 14th Army.

Lost completely on 1 June 1942. Pilot Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev survived and returned to Soviet forces.
The 20 GIAP (20 Guards Fighter Air Regiment) was part of the 14th Army under the command of the Karelian Front. The unit was based at Murmashi airfield, south of Murmansk, as part of the defense of Murmansk and the Kola Peninsula.

The P40E on display on the Isle of White for a few months prior to being purchased by an American collector.
(Mark Sheppard)

According to the 14th Army Soviet War Diary for that day, this is what occurred:
On 1 June 1942, between 0452-0631 (Murmansk time) four P-39s and four P-40s of 19 GIAP escorted Soviet SB bombers to attack Petsamo airfield. Later, between 0519 – 0650 hours, six P40s of 20 GIAP escorted four more SBs to join in the attack on the German airfield. At the target the P-39s and P-40s were involved in air battle with Bf-109s of II/JG5. Soviet losses were listed as four P-40s and four SBs. No loses were recorded by II/JG5.

On this day, P-40E tactical number 󈬣” was being flown by Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev when it was involved in air combat during this mission. The Luftwaffe victor could well have been Uffz. Dцring of 5./JG5, who shot down one P-40 in the early morning of the 1 June 1942 at 0456 CET (0556MT). (Interestingly, this was the second P-40E loss with the 20 GIAP, the first E model being lost on 29 May 1942.)

The P40E engine bearers when on the Isle of White. These seemed to be in very good condition. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40E crashed on Lake Kod Ozero, a small lake near Pja Ozero in the tundra west of Murmansk. The pilot survived the crash, swam to shore, and walked back to his own lines. He was treated in a hospital, where during an attack by the Luftwaffe on 13 June 1942 he was caught by bomb fragments and lost a foot.

Present Day

Photo looking into the P40E on recovery. Notice the construction number on the pilots back armour.
This was how lend lease (excluding British) were often identified. (Unknown copyright)

After being recovered in 1997, the P-40E was shipped to the UK in 1998 and put on display. At the time this article was written the aircraft was still for sale.

Zahvalnice

The author would like to acknowledge assistance of the following individuals in preparation of this article:
Stephen Grey of the Fighter Collection and the new owners.
Special thanks to Rune Rautio, Carl-Fredrik Geust, and Valeriy Romanenko for all their help with the Soviet combat records.
Thanks must go to the Peter Monk, Martin Cobb, Steve Vizard, and Rune Rautio for all their help.