Povijesti Podcasti

Umro Matthew Shepard, žrtva zločina iz mržnje protiv homoseksualaca

Umro Matthew Shepard, žrtva zločina iz mržnje protiv homoseksualaca


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Student Univerziteta u Wyomingu Matthew Shepard umire nakon opakog napada dvojice antigej fanova. Nakon što je upoznao Sheparda u gay baru Laramie, Wyoming, The Fireside Lounge, Russell Henderson i Aaron McKinney namamili su ga na parking gdje su ga žestoko napali i opljačkali.

Dvojica napadača su zatim odveli Sheparda, 21 -godišnjaka i teškog nešto više od 100 kilograma, na udaljeno mjesto izvan grada i privezali mu golo tijelo za drvenu ogradu, mučili ga i ostavili na hladnoći. Otkrila su ga dva brdska biciklista, koji su u početku mislili da je njegovo unakaženo tijelo strašilo. Shepard je ubrzo nakon toga umro. Henderson i McKinney su kasnije iste večeri napali dvojicu latinoameričkih mladića, premlativši ih i udarajući ih pištoljem. Smrt Matthewa Sheparda izazvala je nacionalno negodovanje i obnovila pozive za proširenje zakona o zločinima iz mržnje na nasilje zasnovano na seksualnoj orijentaciji osobe. Predsjednik Clinton zamolio je Kongres da usvoji Zakon o sprečavanju zločina iz mržnje nakon incidenta.

Da bi izbjegao smrtnu kaznu, Russell Henderson priznao je krivicu za otmicu i ubistvo u aprilu 1999. godine i osuđen je na doživotnu robiju. Kasnije te godine, Aaron McKinney pokušao je na svom suđenju upotrijebiti odbranu od "panike homoseksualaca", tvrdeći da mu se Sheppardov napredak gadio. Kad je McKinney pokušao izvesti dokaze da ga je muškarac zlostavljao kao dijete, sudac Barton Voigt to nije dopustio. Odlučio je da je odbrana previše slična privremenom ludilu, što nije opcija u Wyomingu.

McKinney je osuđen za Shepardovo ubistvo, ali je uspio izbjeći smrtnu kaznu uglavnom zahvaljujući Shepardovim roditeljima. U napetoj i tihoj sudnici, Dennis Shepard rekao je ubici svog sina: „Ne bih volio ništa bolje nego vidjeti kako umirete, gospodine McKinney. Međutim, ovo je vrijeme za početak procesa ozdravljenja. Pokazati milost nekome ko je odbio da pokaže bilo kakvu milost. ” McKinney je osuđen na doživotni zatvor. Hendersonove i McKinneyjeve djevojke, koje su pomogle Hendersonu i McKinneyu u raspolaganju dokazima, optužene su kao pomagači u ubistvu.


Matthew Shepard Istina iza najpoznatijeg američkog ubistva mržnje prema homoseksualcima

Stravično ubistvo Matthewa Sheparda 1998. smatra se jednim od najgorih zločina iz mržnje protiv homoseksualaca u američkoj povijesti. Matthewa su pretukla dva napadača, Aaron McKinney i Russell Henderson. Pištoljem su ga udarali pištoljem, a zatim ga vezali za ogradu u uslovima smrzavanja i zapalili prije nego što su ga ostavili da umre.

Napad je postao uzročnik: izazvao je nacionalnu reakciju protiv hiper-mačo kulture i prešutnu toleranciju prema homofobiji. Kao rezultat Matejeve smrti, mnogo se dobrih stvari dogodilo gay zajednici. Igra Projekat Laramie je obišao SAD i mnoge druge zemlje, pričajući Matejevu priču i ohrabrujući kampanje protiv netrpeljivosti. Političari i poznate ličnosti obećali su podršku i finansiranje u borbi protiv zločina iz mržnje protiv homoseksualaca. Porodica Shepard postala je aktivistkinja za prava homoseksualaca. Judy i Dennis Shepard vode Fondaciju Matthew Shepard, koja financira obrazovne programe i internetsku zajednicu za tinejdžere kako bi razgovarali o seksualnoj orijentaciji i rodnim pitanjima. Bilo je mnogo dokumentarnih filmova, drama, knjiga i događaja zasnovanih na priči.

Ljudi odgovorni za njegovu smrt osuđeni su za ubistvo prvog stepena i osuđeni na dvije doživotne kazne. Oni nisu optuženi za zločin iz mržnje, jer to nije bilo moguće prema krivičnom zakonu Wyominga. No, nakon dugotrajnih prepirki na kongresu, predsjednik Obama je 2009. godine konačno potpisao Matthew Shepard Act, zakon koji je određene napade motivirane identitetom žrtve definirao kao zločine iz mržnje.

Ali priča o Matthewu Shepardu još nije završena. Novi preokret dogodio se prošle godine objavljivanjem druge knjige, ove istraživačkog novinara Stephena Jimeneza, koji je 13 godina intervjuisao više od 100 ljudi povezanih sa slučajem. Njegov zaključak, izložen u Knjiga o Mattu: Skrivene istine o ubistvu Matthewa Sheparda, je da groteskno ubistvo nije bilo zločin iz mržnje, već se umjesto njega mogao okriviti kristalni met, lijek koji je preplavio Denver i okolinu u vrijeme Matthewine smrti. Ova nova teorija je, razumljivo, izazvala mnogo bijesa.

Jimenez se suočio sa hrpom kritika od objavljivanja njegove knjige i imao je čitanja za promociju knjige koja je bojkotovana. Jimenez tvrdi, međutim, da ga mnogi njegovi kritičari zapravo nisu pročitali. Zagovornik, Vodeći američki LGBT časopis, prošle je godine objavio članak pod naslovom: "Zašto ne čitam 'Trutherism' o Mattu Shepardu". Jimenez je optužen da je revizionist, što je kritika obično rezervirana za ekstremne desničarske ideologe koji negiraju holokaust i označeni kao homofob.

„Ljudi se protive ideji knjige, a ne onome što je u knjizi“, kaže Jimenez. "Ljutnja usmjerena prema meni bila je prilično ekstremna." Jimenez nije imao namjeru izazvati takvu kontroverzu. On je nagrađivani pisac i TV producent, a posjetio je Laramie nedugo nakon ubistva kako bi prikupio materijal za scenarij o ovom slučaju. Kad je počeo, bio je uvjeren da je Matej umro od ruku homofoba, ali je ubrzo otkrio da je Matejeva tragedija počela mnogo prije noći kada je ubijen.

Jimenez je otkrio da je Matthew bio ovisan i bavio se kristalnim metamfektom i da se opijao heroinom. On je također preuzeo značajne seksualne rizike i svodio se zajedno s Aaronom McKinneyjem, jednim od njegovih ubica, s kojim je imao povremene seksualne susrete. U trenutku smrti bio je HIV pozitivan.

"Ovo nije savršeni poster za pokret za prava homoseksualaca", kaže Jimenez. "Što je veliki dio razloga zbog kojeg je moja knjiga tako bačena u otpad."

Matejeva zloupotreba droga i činjenica da je prije napada poznavao jednog od svojih ubica nikada nije istražena na sudu. Nije bilo ni glasina da su ubice znale da ima pristup pošiljci kristalnog meta ulične vrijednosti 10.000 dolara koju su htjeli ukrasti.

Matthew je rođen u bogatoj porodici i pohađao je državnu školu u Casperu, Wyoming. 21-godišnji diplomirani politolog na Univerzitetu Laramie bio je visok samo 2 metra, a njegova plava kosa, proteze i blagi okvir dali su mu dojam ranjivosti i nevinosti. Na završnoj godini srednje škole, Matthew se s porodicom preselio u Saudijsku Arabiju. U to vrijeme u Saudijskoj Arabiji nije bilo američkih srednjih škola, pa je poslan u Američku školu u Švicarskoj. Kad se upisao u Laramie, govorio je tri jezika i imao je težnju da bude zagovornik ljudskih prava. Negdje na liniji, međutim, Matthew je od učenika A razreda pao u prostitutku ovisnu o drogama koja se kockala s opasnošću. Patio je od depresije, vjerovatno kao posljedica grupnog silovanja nekoliko godina ranije na odmoru u Maroku. Ali ovo nije Matthew Shepard koji je postao slavna ličnost pokreta za prava homoseksualaca u Americi.

Laramie se smatra najliberalnijim gradom u Wyomingu. Sjedi u ravnom nizu visokih ravnica bez drveća. S padom industrije ranča, zaposlenošću ovdje dominira Univerzitet u Wyomingu. Ima čudan zapadnjački šarm: ulice oivičene drvoredima, prelijepe parkove i renovirani povijesni centar grada na rubu željezničkog dvorišta s malim trgovinama i restoranima. Okružen je valjanim prerijama, rančevima, lancem Snježnih planina i ogromnim, širom otvorenim prostorima. No, grad također ima brojne parkove mobilnih kućica na rubovima, neki su zapušteniji od drugih.

Uveče 6. oktobra 1998. Matthew je otišao u bar Fireside, lokalno okupljalište koje je navodno bilo prilagođeno homoseksualcima. Bilo je karaoke veče, a mještani su trljali ramena radnicima koji su ih pozivali na brzo piće na putu do kuće. Ubrzo nakon toga stigli su Russell Henderson i Aaron McKinney. Trojica muškaraca su kratko razgovarala prije nego što su napustili bar i sjeli u kamion koji je pripadao McKinneyjevom ocu.

U kamionu Matthewu su oduzeli ključeve, novčanik i cipele, a jedan ili obojica su ih više puta tukli. Zatim su ga iz kamiona odveli, pištoljem udarili do 18 puta po glavi i šutirali ga između nogu. Matej je bio vezan za ogradu, zapaljen i ostavljen bez svijesti.

Petnaest sati nakon napada, student Aaron Kreifels bio je vani vozeći se na biciklu kada je otkrio Matthewa vezanog za ogradu, jedva živog. U početku ga je smatrao strašilom. Matthewovo lice bilo je obliveno krvlju, osim suza sa svake strane obraza.

Prvi policajac na mjestu događaja bio je Reggie Fluty. "Jedino što sam mogla vidjeti bila su djelimično nečija stopala, izašla sam iz vozila i potrčala", rekla je Fluty, sa svojom kratkom plavom kosom, resama i naočalama sa žicom, pa je izgledala više kao socijalni radnik nego kao policajac. “Vidio sam ono što se činilo mladom čovjeku, 13, 14 godina, jer je bio tako malen, ležao je na leđima i bio je vezan za donji kraj stupa. Učinio sam najbolje što sam mogao… ”

Nakon što su Matthewa ostavili vezanog za ogradu, McKinney i Henderson su se uputili prema Matthewovoj kući, ali su na putu naišli na dva mlada Hispanjolca, Emiliana Moralesa i Jeremyja Herreru, koji su radi zabave prerezali gume. Muškarci su se potukli, što je rezultiralo time da je McKinney razbio Moralesovu glavu istim pištoljem koji je koristio na Matthewu. Došao je policajac Flint Waters, zgrabio Hendersona (on i McKinney su trčali u različitim smjerovima) i pronašao kamion, pištolj, Matthewove cipele i kreditnu karticu.

Razgovarao sam s Watersom, koji se od tada povukao iz policije, vidjevši ga kako hvali Knjiga o Mateju na društvenim mrežama. “Vjerujem da su do danas McKinney i Henderson pokušavali pronaći Matthewovu kuću kako bi mu mogli ukrasti drogu. U zajednici Laramie bilo je prilično dobro poznato da McKinney neće biti onaj koji je izlazio iz osjećaja homofobije. Neki od policajaca s kojima sam radio uhvatili su ga u seksualnom činu s drugim muškarcem, pa se to nije uklapalo - ništa od toga nije imalo smisla. ”

No, kad su Matthewovi prijatelji Walt Boulden i Alex Trout čuli za napad, požurili su u bolnicu. Istoga dana kontaktirali su Associated Press i brojne lokalne gej organizacije. Boulden, 46-godišnji predavač na fakultetu koji kaže da je bio posljednja osoba koja je razgovarala s Matthewom prije nego što je upoznao McKinneyja i Hendersona, povezao je napad s neuspjehom zakonodavnog tijela Wyominga da usvoji zakon o zločinima iz mržnje. Boulden je kasnije rekao da je policajac napad identifikovao kao zločin iz mržnje.

Stephen Jimenez je nagrađivani novinar i homoseksualac. Pa zašto je uložio toliko vremena i truda u pokušaj da dokaže da Matejevo ubistvo nije zločin iz mržnje, pogotovo jer ga je optužio da je saveznik desničarskim kršćanskim fundamentalistima koji poriču stvarnost homofobije?

"Smatralo se da su homofobični crvenokosi ušli u bar i ugledali očigledno homoseksualca s novcem, ciljali ga i pretukli do smrti", kaže Jimenez. “Ali to se nije dogodilo. Ništa u ovoj knjizi ne oduzima nepravdu i brutalnost zločina ili krivicu njegovih ubica, ali Matthewu i drugim mladićima poput njega dugujemo istinu.

“Aaron i Matthew su imali prijateljstvo. Bili su seksualno uključeni, kupovali su i prodavali drogu jedno od drugog. To komplicira originalnu priču o dva stranca koji su ušli u bar i ciljali Matthewa - nekoga koga nisu poznavali - jer je bio homoseksualac. ”

Iako McKinney nikada nije priznao da poznaje Matthewa, Jimenez je pronašao desetak izvora koji su ih vidjeli zajedno. Jedna je Kathleen Johnson, bivša vlasnica antikvarnice Laramie Granny's Attic, koja je poznavala Hendersona, McKinneyja i Matthewa.

Mladi, nezaposleni muškarci nisu imali lake živote. Hendersonova majka bila je hronični alkoholičar kojeg je otac stalno tukao. McKinney je veći dio djetinjstva proveo sam, a majka ga je ostavila s bakom i djedom, koji ga je zaključao u podrum kako bi ga sačuvao od nevolja. "Russell Henderson se družio sa homoseksualcima", rekao mi je Johnson. “Laramie je imao veliku homoseksualnu populaciju. Znao sam koja je seksualna orijentacija ljudi jer je sin moje najbolje prijateljice bio homoseksualac. Vidio sam ih kako se druže s Russellom. ”

Policija nije istraživala odnos ubica prema homoseksualnoj zajednici.

Pet dana nakon napada, 12. oktobra, Matthew je umro. 14. oktobra na stepenicama Kapitola SAD -a održano je bdijenje poznatih ličnosti, kojem su prisustvovali Ted Kennedy i Ellen DeGeneres. Elton John poslao je cvijeće na Mattovu sahranu, Barbra Streisand nazvala je ured šerifa okruga Albany kako bi zatražila brzu akciju po ovom slučaju, a Madonna je pozvala pomoćnika predsjednika univerziteta Philipa Duboisa da se požali na ono što se dogodilo. Na dan kada je Matthew umro, predsjednik Clinton rekao je novinarima u Bijeloj kući: "U našem šoku i tuzi jedno mora ostati jasno: mržnja i predrasude nisu američke vrijednosti."

Sahrani je prisustvovalo više od 1.000 ožalošćenih, a podigla ih je Baptistička crkva Westboro, predvođena Fredom Phelpsom, otpuštenim ministrom i osnivačem GodHatesFags.com. Kako bi se suprotstavili protestu, Matejevi prijatelji odjeveni u anđele.

JoAnn Wypijewski, autorica i bivša viša urednica časopisa Nacija, bio je jedan od mnogih novinara koji su došli u Laramie nakon vijesti o Matthewovom napadu. Bila je tu zbog Harper’s Magazine i bio je jedini novinar koji je rano sugerirao da je metamfetamin možda odigrao ulogu u Matejevoj smrti. "Slučaj je korišten da se istakne činjenica nasilja nad homoseksualcima", rekao mi je Wypijewski. “Klintonovo zakonodavstvo o zločinu iz mržnje uključivalo je odredbe o rasi i povećane kazne za zločine nad ženama-one su korištene kao zaslađivači [onima s lijeve strane]. Oni su bili poput politike identiteta u krivičnom pravu. To je ono što je nekim drugim grupama dalo ideju da je zakonodavstvo o zločinima iz mržnje dobra stvar. ”

Wypijewski smatra da je razlog zašto su neki dijelovi homoseksualne zajednice toliko ljuti zbog knjige Jimenez očigledan: „Jimenez je odveo njihovog anđela i postoji refleksni osjećaj da je kao zajednica konačno prepoznata njegova patnja. Ljudi koji oblikuju vijesti zahtijevaju vrlo jednostavnu priču - oni moraju biti anđeli i zlikovci. "

John Stoltenberg je aktivist za prava homoseksualaca koji je živio s feminističkom spisateljicom Andreom Dworkin do njene smrti 2005. On je dugogodišnji pristalica Projekat Laramie, ali je i pozitivno pisao o Knjiga o Mateju. „Držanje Matthewa kao postera zločina iz mržnje prema homoseksualcima i ignoriranje pune tragedije njegove priče bili su dnevni red mnogih vođa gej pokreta“, kaže on. „Zanemarivanje tragedija u Matejevom životu prije njegovog ubistva neće ništa pomoći drugim mladićima u našoj zajednici koji se prodaju radi seksa, opustošeni drogom i općenito eksploatirani. Oni će ostati nevidljivi i izgubljeni. ”

Ted Henson je bivši Matthewin ljubavnik i dugogodišnji prijatelj. Par se prvobitno upoznao dok je Mat odrastao u Saudijskoj Arabiji. Henson mi je rekao da vjeruje u to Knjiga o Mateju nije „ništa drugo do istina“ i da „nikada nije bio siguran“ da je ubistvo zločin iz mržnje protiv gejeva. "Ne znam zašto postoji toliko neprijateljstva prema Steveu", rekao mi je. "Matt ne bi želio da ga vide kao mučenika, već bi želio da istina izađe na vidjelo."

Drugi stanovnici Laramieja vjeruju da postoji još jedan oblik predrasuda na način na koji je ispričana Matejeva priča. Jedan koji se tiče često ponavljane ideje da je Wyoming pun fanatika koji mrze homoseksualce. Ray Hageman je izvještavao o slučaju za radio Wyoming 1998. godine i uvijek je bio skeptičan prema medijskoj konstrukciji priče. "Nacionalni mediji nisu mogli odoljeti narativu koji se uklapa u njegove unaprijed stvorene predstave o ljudima u ruralnim zapadnim državama", rekao mi je Hageman. “Znate, mi jednostavni ljudi s komadom slame koji nam visi s usta, pljujemo duhan i pucamo konzerve s prednje verande. Ljudi u Laramieju su to jednostavno morali uzeti, jer je momak koji je slučajno bio homoseksualac ubijen u njihovom gradu. ”

Fondacija Matthew Shepard čvrsto tvrdi da je ubistvo potaknuto homofobičnom mržnjom. Zatražio sam reakciju u vezi s knjigom, ali mi je poslana unaprijed pripremljena izjava izvršnog direktora Jasona Marsdena, koji je bio Matthewin prijatelj. "Ne reagiramo na nagovještaje, glasine ili teorije zavjere", stoji u priopćenju objavljenom tada Knjiga o Mateju je objavljen. “Umjesto toga, ostajemo predani poštovanju Matejevog sjećanja i odbijamo da nas zastraše oni koji pokušavaju da ga ocrne. To dugujemo desetinama hiljada donatora, aktivista, volontera i saveznika u cilju jednakosti koji su nam omogućili rad. ”

Dana 16. septembra Casper Star Tribune, lokalni list u Matthewovom rodnom gradu, objavio je uvodnik u kojem se tvrdi da nagrada koju je Jimenez nedavno dobio za svoju knjigu "zaslužuje odbacivanje", rekavši: "Od početka postoje oni koji žele ignorirati sadističke homofobne motive Shepardovih napadača i umjesto toga inzistirajte da je stvar bila loša trgovina drogom. ”

Rasprava će bez sumnje potrajati. Ubistvo Matthew Shepard za neke će uvijek biti simbol mržnje s kojom se suočavaju mnoge lezbejke i homoseksualci u SAD -u i šire. Grad Laramie može se utješiti ako nakon toga reagira s takvim dostojanstvom i humanošću i posudi svoje ime Projekat Laramie, što je promijenilo srce i mišljenje. Ali misterija ostaje - ne toliko zašto je Matej umro, već zašto se homoseksualna zajednica, nakon gotovo pet decenija borbe za jednaka prava, toliko temeljno oslanja na sliku savršenog mučenika da zastupa uzrok.


Je li priča o Matthewu Shepardu ispričana svijetu pogrešna?

Stephen Jimenez, koji je 13 godina intervjuisao više od 100 ljudi povezanih sa slučajem, iznio je svoju teoriju. On smatra da to nije bio zločin iz mržnje, već je dogovor sa drogom pošao po zlu.

U knjizi The Book of Matt on opsežno istražuje ovu glasinu.

Jimenez je tvrdio da su ubice znale da je Matthew imao pristup pošiljci kristalnog meta ulične vrijednosti 10.000 dolara koju su htjeli ukrasti.

Autor je takođe tvrdio da je Matthew spavao sa jednim od njegovih ubica, obojicu je prisilno ispao nepoznati dobavljač lekova.

Kritičari su uveliko diskreditovali ove tvrdnje kada je knjiga objavljena prije pet godina.

Recenzentica kulture Alyssa Rosenberg ismijavala je knjigu kao ‘ego-vođenu ’, ‘proizvedenu ’ i ‘izrazito podlo ’.

‘Jimenez očajnički želi da je vide kao hrabrog društvenog komentatora i reportera, ’ ona piše.

‘Umjesto toga, njegov izabrani jezik i struktura njegove knjige čine da naiđe kao zastarjeli trač. ’

Jimenez je smislio svoju (moguće lažnu) verziju istorije.


Harvey Milk 1978. Brandon Teena 1993. Matthew Shepard 1998. godine.

Spisak dobro objavljenih ubistava homoseksualaca, lezbijki, biseksualaca i transrodnih osoba sada uključuje žrtve najgoreg masovnog ubistva u istoriji SAD, u kojem je 49 ljudi ubijeno ovog vikenda u gej noćnom klubu u Orlandu na Floridi.

Iako su široko rasprostranjeni i daleko od toga da se ograniče na posljednje decenije, nasilne napade ukorijenjene u spolu ili seksualnosti teško je kvantificirati. "U većini zemalja, nepostojanje efikasnih sistema za evidentiranje i prijavljivanje nasilja iz mržnje, ili" zločina iz mržnje ", nad LGBT osobama maskira stvarne razmjere nasilja", navodi se u prošlogodišnjem izvještaju Ujedinjenih naroda. "Tamo gdje postoje, službene statistike umanjuju broj incidenata."

Više od 20 posto američkih zločina iz mržnje u 2014. (posljednja dostupna godina) ciljalo je na ljude zbog seksualne orijentacije ili spola, prema statistikama FBI -a koje navodi aktivistička grupa Human Rights Campaign. I dok je bezbroj ljudi bilo žrtva pojedinačnih napada, velike grupe u noćnim klubovima i drugim mjestima širom svijeta također su bile izložene nasilju.

Motivi za napade na LGBT osobe „oduvijek su bili, i dalje su [o] naizgled vjerskoj retorici“, kaže Kaila Story, profesorica ženskih i rodnih studija na Univerzitetu u Louisvilleu.

Povezujući pucnjavu za vikend s terorističkom grupom, kaže ona, "čini se da" ovo pitanje nije dio Sjedinjenih Država, niti dio našeg američkog materijala, da to radi neki autsajder ".

Napadač u nedjeljnom napadu na Orlando, Omar Matteen, obećao je vjernost ISIS -u, prema novinskim izvještajima.

Evo popisa napada na homoseksualne klubove i događaje - za koje Story kaže da često nemaju odgovarajuću sigurnost - koji su posljednjih decenija zaradili globalnu pažnju:

Parada ponosa homoseksualaca, Jeruzalem, 2015 .: Jedan ultrapravoslavni Židov ubo je šest osoba, ubivši jednu, 10 godina nakon što je napao učesnike iste parade 2005.


Otmica i ubistvo

Samo nekoliko mjeseci nakon dolaska u Laramie, 6. listopada 1998., Shepard je u lokalnom pabu The Fireside Lounge naišao na Aarona McKinneyja i Russella Hendersona. McKinney i Henderson vidjeli su Sheparda kao laku metu i planirali su da ga opljačkaju. U ranim jutarnjim satima 7. oktobra, par ga je namamio od šanka i odvezao u ruralno područje gdje su ga vezali za ogradu podijeljenu šinom, tukli ga kundakom pištolja .357 Smith & amp Wesson i otišli umrijeti na niskim temperaturama u ranim jutarnjim satima.

McKinney je kasnije izjavio da je pretpostavio da je Shepard mrtav kad su otišli. Sheparda je 18 sati kasnije otkrio biciklist Aaron Kreifels, koji je isprva pomislio da je strašilo. Još živ, ali u komi, Shepard je hitno prevezen u bolnicu Poudre Valley u Fort Collinsu, Colorado. Četiri dana, Shepard je ležao u komi u bolničkom krevetu odmah niz hodnik od McKinney -a (koji je bio tamo kao posljedica frakture lobanje na kosi koju je dobio u tučnjavi koju je podstakao samo nekoliko sati nakon napada na Sheparda). & #xA0

Osim brojnih modrica, rana i razderotina, Shepardovo moždano deblo je ozbiljno oštećeno, a bolovao je i od hipotermije. Proglašen je mrtvim u 12:53 ujutro 12. oktobra 1998. Ubrzo nakon toga, policija je pronašla krvavi pištolj, cipele i novčanik Shepard & aposs u kamionu McKinney. McKinney i Henderson su uhapšeni i osuđeni za teško ubistvo i otmicu. Oboje su dobili dva uzastopna životna mandata.


Matthew Shepard umro je prije 22 godine. Wyoming i dalje nema zakon o zločinima iz mržnje

Korpa cveća visi sa ograde na kojoj je Matthew Shepard, otvoreno homoseksualac Univ. studenta iz Wyominga, ostao je vezan, pretučen blizu smrti u (kasnije kobnom) divljačkom napadu od strane navodnih napadača Aarona McKinneya i pojačala Russell Henderson. (Fotografija Steve Liss/Zbirka slika LIFE preko Getty Images/Getty Images) Steve Liss

CW: Ovaj članak sadrži opise zločina iz mržnje i nasilnih šala.

Colin Monahan je znala da će Wyoming promijeniti tempo, ali je mislila da je spremna za to. 2016. godine, Monahan i njen 30 -godišnji partner, Shannon Lastowski, preselili su se iz predgrađa Čikaga u Wapiti, malu zajednicu bez korporacije u sjeverozapadnom dijelu države, nakon njenog odlaska u penziju. Par je prije toga posjetio obližnji nacionalni park Yellowstone, a Monahan, koja voli loviti, privukao je onostrani krajolik koji opisuje kao nešto iz filma iz 1993. Jurassic Park.

"Mi imamo bivole i sve što prolazi", rekao je Monahan za njih., kako se Lastowski ubacio da često losovi lutaju na prednji trijem njihove kabine. „To je samo čarobno mjesto. Zato se ljudi sele ovamo: žele biti među životinjama i gledati u pogled. ”

Životinjski svijet u Wapitiju toliko je sveprisutan da je Lastowski primijetio da su gotovo svi stanovnici prisiljeni stalno nositi pištolj sa sobom radi svoje zaštite. U julu su zvaničnici Yellowstone-a izvijestili da je u 2020. godini zabilježen rekordan broj napada grizlija, od kojih je sedam u oblasti tri države Wyoming, Montana i Idaho. "Nije važno ko ste: ako otvorite njihovu košulju ili torbicu, tamo je pištolj", rekao je Lastowski.

No, mogućnost da napunjeno vatreno oružje vreba u tuđoj jakni nije bila problem sve dok se nije pojavila na njihovom pragu. 9. oktobra grupa od pet pojedinaca iz lokalne zajednice došla je na njihovo imanje i zahtijevala da odmah napuste prostorije i da se više nikada ne vrate. "Vaša vrsta ovdje nije dobrodošla i morate otići", rekla im je žena, misleći na činjenicu da su lezbijski par.

Monahan je grupi više puta rekao da uđu u svoje kamione i odvezu se, ali oni su ignorisali zahtjeve, prijeteći se polukružno gomilajući oko prednjeg trijema para. Lastowski je ušla unutra da nazove hitnu, ali ruke su joj se toliko tresle da nije mogla nazvati telefon pa je morala predati slušalicu Monahanu.

Budući da je prostrano područje tako rijetko naseljeno, policajac nije mogao izaći u njihovu kuću. Obično postoji samo jedan zamjenik šerifa na dužnosti u bilo kojem trenutku, a Monahan je morao podnijeti policijski izvještaj putem telefona.

Monahan je rekao da su njihovi uznemirivači odgovorili smiješkom i "okrenuli su se i počeli polako odlaziti", vjerovatno znajući da je policija mogla učiniti vrlo malo u vezi sa situacijom. Prema zakonima Wyominga, Monahan je rekao da se pojedinci terete za uznemiravanje samo ako se određeni incident ponavlja. U suprotnom bi zločin vjerojatno bio označen kao građanski napad, što Lastowski smatra da nije dovoljno da ilustrira da je ono što su njihovi napadači učinili bilo pogrešno.

"Ovo je bilo smišljeno", rekla je. “Htjeli su nas zastrašiti, i znate šta? Uspjeli su. Ja ću#prvi priznati, zastrašen sam. Pobijedio si. Ovo je moj poklon tebi. "

Ono što Monahan i Lastowski kažu da sada žele je ono što Wyoming nije uspio isporučiti u 22 godine od kada je ubistvo Matthewa Sheparda stavilo državu u središte nacionalne pažnje: sveobuhvatni zakon o zločinima iz mržnje. Iako je grad Laramie donio vlastitu lokalnu uredbu nakon što je 21-godišnji student homoseksualac ostavljen da umre kada je 6. listopada 1998. bio vezan za ogradu, Wyoming je jedna od samo tri američke države kojima nedostaje zakon o zločinima iz mržnje. bilo koja marginalizirana grupa, bilo da je žrtva LGBTQ+, Indijanka, Židovka, Muslimanka ili obojena osoba.

"Postoji mnogo ljudi koji nikada ne bi vjerovali policiji da ih zaštiti, a ovaj zakon bi to mogao promijeniti."

Napori da se usvoji zakon o zločinima iz mržnje u Wyomingu zaustavili su se 1999. godine nakon što je zakonodavstvo palo s jednim glasom u državnom domu i od tada se nije više približilo, čak i unatoč usvajanju Matthew Shepard i James Byrd Jr. Zločina iz mržnje Zakon o prevenciji iz 2009. godine, koji je potpisao bivši predsjednik Barack Obama, taj značajni zakon je također dobio ime po Jamesu Byrdu, mlađem, 39-godišnjem crncu kojeg su 7. juna 1998. ubila trojica bijelih nadmoćnika u Jasperu u Teksasu koji su odvukao ga iza kamiona.

Monahan je rekao da bi usvajanje zakona o zločinima iz mržnje u Wyomingu dalo paru veću slobodu u mogućnosti da nastave prepirku kao uznemiravanje. "Sa zakonom o zločinima iz mržnje to moraju učiniti samo jednom", rekla je, "i to bi im bilo dovoljno da snose neke posljedice."

Nakon decenija neaktivnosti, 2021. bi mogla biti godina u kojoj će Wyoming konačno krenuti kako bi LGBTQ+ stanovnicima pružio zaštitu za koju kažu da im je potrebna. Predstavnica Državnog doma Sara Burlingame, koja je jedna od samo tri zastupnika queer-a u državi, trenutno vodi kampanju za svoj drugi mandat, a ako pobijedi na ponovnim izborima 3. novembra, planira sufinansirati potpuno uključiv zakon o zločinima iz mržnje kada se zakonodavno tijelo ponovo sastane u januaru.

Kao izvršni direktor Wyoming Equality -a, Burlingame je rekao da bi postojanje zakona o knjigama dalo „priliku da ponudi obuku i resurse“ kako bi se osiguralo da službenici imaju kompetenciju za rad sa pripadnicima LGBTQ+ zajednice. Primijetila je nedavni slučaj u malenom ruralnom gradu od 1.000 ljudi gdje se transrodni stanovnik suočio sa "užasnim internetskim uznemiravanjem, uznemiravanjem i tučnjavom", a lokalna policija je htjela pomoći, ali je imala vrlo malo znanja o tome kako uopće stupiti u kontakt s transseksualcem osoba.

"Policija jednostavno nije imala obuku", rekao je Burlingame za njih. “Dakle, oni povećavaju štetu tako što je pogrešno postavljaju i čine da se osjeća kao da ne može razgovarati s njima. Postoji mnogo ljudi koji jednostavno nikada u milion godina ne bi vjerovali policiji da ih zaštiti, a ovaj zakon bi to mogao promijeniti. ”

Postojanje državnog zakona o zločinima iz mržnje u Wyomingu također bi pomoglo u rješavanju nekoliko ključnih slijepih mjesta u nacionalnom zakonodavstvu. Iako je donošenje saveznog Shepard-Byrdovog zakona o zločinima iz mržnje bio historijski korak naprijed, države nisu obavezne prijavljivati ​​podatke o zločinima iz mržnje Federalnom istražnom birou, a mnogi zločini propadaju kroz pukotine. Kako su zločini iz mržnje porasli 2017. godine tokom prve godine predsjednikovanja Donalda Trumpa, rastući treću godinu zaredom, u Wyomingu su zabilježena samo četiri zločina iz mržnje.

U ožujku 2019., Savjetodavni odbor Wyominga pri Komisiji za građanska prava SAD -a primijetio je da se „velika većina zločina iz mržnje u SAD -u procesuira na državnim sudovima“, što znači da se savezni zakon možda ne odnosi na većinu ovih slučajeva. Samo 23 države u svojim zakonima o zločinima iz mržnje navode zaštitu na osnovu seksualne orijentacije i rodnog identiteta.

Zagovornici LGBTQ+ i dalje se nadaju da je napredak na pomolu nakon što je Gruzija ranije ove godine usvojila sveobuhvatni zakon o zločinima iz mržnje, zakon koji je usvojilo zakonodavno tijelo sa većinom republikanaca, a odobrio ga je republikanski guverner. Iako Gruzija u svojoj povijesti do ove godine nikada nije usvojila bilo koji oblik zakona o zločinima iz mržnje, smrt Ahmauda Arberyja, 25-godišnjeg Crnog trkača na kojeg su u veljači ubila tri bijelca, pokrenula je politički zamah da konačno poduzeti akciju.

No, dok države kozmetički dijele konzervativni sastav, postoje velike razlike među njima. Wyoming se široko smatra najjačim uporištem GOP -a u zemlji, koji je 2016. glasao za Trumpa s najvećom razlikom u bilo kojoj državi: 46 bodova. Burlingame je samo jedan od devet demokrata koji sjede u Predstavničkom domu Wyominga, tijelu od 60 članova.

Monahan i Lastowski primijetili su da druge stranke imaju tako malu političku moć u mnogim dijelovima države da su ove godine registrirale republikance da na predizborima nije bilo demokrata.

"Ovdje skoro svi glasaju za republikance", objasnio je Monahan. “Razlika je u vrsti kandidata koji su republikanci. You might have a more progressive Republican candidate and then you find out the longer you're here that many people who vote for the progressive Republican were actually Democrats their whole life until they moved here.”


Matthew Shepard’s Mother: Why Hate Crime Is Only Conquered When We Speak Up

In January, &ldquoEmpire&rdquo star Jussie Smollett reported a violent attack at the hands of two men outside his Chicago apartment building. Local police and prosecutors said Smollett fabricated the event, which the actor still vehemently denies. More than a dozen criminal charges, including falsifying a police report, were filed and later dropped by state attorneys. The resulting media storm became an ugly performance of partisan politics, inspired doubt in victims and accusers, and resulted in a President Trump Twitter tirade over the merit and motivation of violence against LGBTQ people. To refocus the conversation around hate crimes &mdash a reality beyond social media outrage and tabloid speculation &mdash Raznolikost turned to Judy Shepard, mother of the late Matthew Shepard, whose brutal murder inspired a national movement for the protection and dignity of queer people and minorities. &mdash Matt Donnelly

Although the story of my son Matt&rsquos life began on Dec. 1, 1976, the horrific events that took place shortly after midnight on Oct. 7, 1998, would cement his name into the history books. After being abducted by two men, driven to a remote area east of Laramie, Wyo., tied to a split-rail fence, severely beaten and left for dead, Matthew Shepard would become known across the world as the victim of one of the most notorious anti-gay hate crimes in American history.

Popular on Variety

Matt died on Oct. 12. His memorial service was attended by friends and family from around the world, garnering immense media attention and changing the way we talk about and deal with hate in America. Since Matt&rsquos death, his legacy has been to challenge and inspire millions of individuals to erase hate in all its forms from their daily lives. Although Matt&rsquos life was short, his story continues to have a great impact on young and old alike. His life echoes still in the thousands of activists who continue the struggle to replace hate with understanding, compassion and acceptance.

The LGBTQ community and members of many other minorities asserted their rights to safety and dignity with the 2009 enactment of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. This sorely needed and long-sought statute expanded existing hate crime law to include cases based on a victim&rsquos sexual orientation, gender, gender identity or disability. Our hope was that by helping police comprehensively address hate crimes, we would come to see them diminish and, hopefully, one day disappear. We believed that in Matt&rsquos memory, we were taking real steps forward for his fellow community members.

Sadly, the last few years have been a dramatic step backward, by decades, and our work to erase hate is garnering more attention than at any time in 20 years. The reality is, hate crimes are real, on the rise and chronically underreported, and they have widespread negative impacts on targeted communities. After decades of steady decline, hate crimes have been on the rise since 2015, with law enforcement agencies reporting 1,303 hate crime offenses based on sexual orientation alone in 2017. When we get the 2018 totals later this year, there is no doubt they will have risen yet again.

How do we combat this? When asked, &ldquoWhat can I do to erase hate?&rdquo my immediate response is &ldquoUse your voice and speak out!&rdquo It is our duty to pay attention, sound the alarm and prove that there are more of us than there are of them. If you have a platform, it is your responsibility not only to educate yourself but to confront those spreading falsehoods about the crisis of increasing violent attacks motivated by hatred.

And everyone has a platform. Whether it&rsquos a letter to the editor, calls to representatives, protest marches in your community, town halls, city council meetings or school board meetings, every day there is constructive work you can do in just a short time. You also must vote. Be inspired by Matt&rsquos passion to foster a more caring and just world, and be empowered by the thousands who stand with the Matthew Shepard Foundation and our efforts to end bias-motivated crime. Vote in your local, state and national elections. Advocate for anti-hate crime training for local law enforcement and prosecutors. Take action, and let your voice be heard.

Last year, the Matthew Shepard Foundation conducted 10 anti-hate crime training sessions, reaching more than 500 officers and prosecutors representing 104 law enforcement agencies across the nation. The foundation&rsquos work continues to change hearts and minds through Matt&rsquos story and deliver the message that hate crimes must be a priority for law enforcement agencies of every size in every state. Visit MatthewShepard.org for more information.

Judy Shepard, pictured with her late son, Matthew, and husband, Dennis in 1993, is co-founder of the Matthew Shepard Foundation, dedicated to ending hate crimes against LGBTQ people. Matthew died as the result of a hate crime in Wyoming in 1998, sparking a national movement.


Hate Crimes Timeline

There were challenges and victories - both big and small - along the way. Here’s a look back at some of the bigger developments in the fight for passage of federal hate crimes legislation.

February 22, 1989 | 101st Congress - The Hate Crimes Statistics Act is reintroduced in the U.S. House of Representatives. It was also introduced in the 99th and 100th congresses. It would require the Department of Justice to collect and publish data about crimes motivated by hatred based on race, religion, ethnicity and sexual orientation.

June 27, 1989 | House passes the Hate Crimes Statistics Act by a 368-47 vote.

February 8, 1990 | The U.S. Senate passes the Hate Crimes Statistics Act by a 92-4 vote.

April 23, 1990 | Predsjednik George H.W. Bush signs the bill into law.

March 1, 1993 | 103rd Congress - The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act is reintroduced in the House (it was also introduced in the 102nd Congress). It would allow judges to impose harsher penalties for hate crimes, including hate crimes based on gender, disability and sexual orientation that occur in national parks and on other federal property.

September 21, 1993 | House passes the Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act by a voice vote.

October 6, 1993 | The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act is introduced in the Senate.

November 4, 1993 | The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act is added as an amendment to the Violent Crime and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. It is later enacted.

June 7, 1997 |"Such hate crimes, committed solely because the victims have a different skin color or a different faith or are gays or lesbians, leave deep scars not only on the victims but on our larger community. They are acts of violence against America itself."– President Bill Clinton in his weekly radio address

June 7, 1997 | President Clinton devotes his weekly radio address to hate crimes, specifically citing bias crimes against LGBTQ people. He asks Attorney General Janet Reno to review the laws concerning hate crimes and help the federal government develop a plan of action.

November 10, 1997 | HRC Executive Director Elizabeth Birch participates in a White House hate crimes summit convened by Clinton. HRC asks the White House to focus also on how law enforcement officials are trained to investigate and prosecute bias crimes. Before the summit concludes, Clinton unveils a package of initiatives that includes expanding federal hate crimes laws to encompass crimes aimed at people because they are gay or disabled, or because of their sex.

November 13, 1997 | 105th Congress - The Hate Crimes Prevention Act is introduced in the House and the Senate. The bill would extend the protection of the current federal hate crimes law to include those who are victimized because of their sexual orientation, gender or disability. It would also strengthen current law regarding hate crimes based on race, religion and national origin.

June 7, 1998 | James Byrd Jr., 49, of Jasper, Texas, accepts a ride from three white men. Instead of taking him home, the three men beat Byrd behind a convenience store, strip him naked, chain him by the ankles to their pickup truck and dragged him for three miles over rural roads outside Jasper. Forensic evidence suggests that Byrd had been attempting to keep his head up while being dragged, and an autopsy suggests that Byrd was alive during much of the dragging. Byrd dies after his right arm and head are severed after his body hit a culvert. His body had caught a sewage drain on the side of the road, resulting in his decapitation.

Officials quickly determined that the murderers were members of white supremacist groups, wore body tattoos from Aryan Pride, Nazi symbols and gang symbols of their affiliation with well known racist gangs. It was then documented as a hate crime.

October 6-7, 1998 | Matthew Shepard, 21, of Laramie, Wyo., meets two men, Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson, at a bar, and they drive him to a remote area east of Laramie, where they tie him to a split-rail fence, beat him and leave him to die in the cold of the night. Almost 18 hours later, he is found by a cyclist, who initially mistakes him for a scarecrow.

October 12, 1998 | Matthew Shepard dies at a hospital in Fort Collins, Colo.

October 1998 | Vigils are held across the country following the death of Matthew Shepard. One of the largest such vigils takes place on the steps of the U.S. Capitol and was organized by HRC, the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.

November 1998 | A bipartisan poll conducted for HRC finds that 56 percent of Americans support the Hate Crimes Prevention Act.

May 1999 | I know this measure is not a cure-all, and it won't stop all hate violence. But it will send the message that this senseless violence is unacceptable and un-American. My son Matthew was the victim of a brutal hate crime, and I believe this legislation is necessary to make sure no family again has to suffer like mine."– Judy Shepard, speaking before a U.S. Senate panel to urge the passage of federal hate crimes legislation

January 1999 | President Clinton mentions the passage of the Hate Crimes Prevention Act among his priorities in his State of the Union address.

February 1999 | A Gallup poll indicates that 75 percent of Americans believe that "homosexuals" should be covered by hate crimes laws.

March 1999 | 106th Congress - The Hate Crimes Prevention Act is reintroduced in the House and the Senate.

April 5, 1999 | Russell Henderson pleads guilty to the murder of Matthew Shepard and agrees to testify against Aaron McKinney. In exchange for his testimony, Henderson receives two consecutive life sentences with no chance for parole.

May 1999 | Judy Shepard speaks before a U.S. Senate panel to urge the passage of hate crimes legislation.

July 22, 1999 | The Senate passes the Hate Crimes Prevention Act after it is incorporated as an amendment to the Commerce, Justice and State appropriations bill.

October 1999 | HRC begins airing public service announcements featuring Judy and Dennis Shepard and aimed at curbing anti-LGBTQ violence and promoting a greater understanding of LGBTQ issues.

October 1999 | HRC National Dinner honors the memory of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. The Shepard and Byrd families attend as special guests.

October 25, 1999 | Trial of Aaron McKinney begins. Defense lawyers plan to argue that McKinney snapped when Shepard supposedly made a pass at him at a bar, triggering memories of a childhood sexual assault. The judge rejects the so-called "gay panic" defense.

November 4, 1999 | Aaron McKinney is found guilty in the murder of Matthew Shepard. In a deal that is approved by the Shepard family, McKinney avoids the death penalty and is sentenced to two consecutive life sentences with no chance for parole.

April 29, 2000 | Celebrities and 45,000 people gather at RFK Stadium in Washington, D.C., for HRC's Equality Rocks concert. One of the most powerful moments comes when HRC Executive Director Elizabeth Birch introduces Dennis and Judy Shepard and several other families who have been affected by hate crimes. They include Louvon Harris and Darrell Varrett, the sister and nephew of James Byrd Jr. Chuck and Eleanor Kadish, parents of Ben Kadish, a young boy seriously injured when a man carried out a violent rampage of a Jewish day school in Los Angeles and Ismael and Deena Illeto, the brother and sister-in-law of Joseph Illeto, a Filipino-American postal worker who died during that rampage.

October 2000 | HRC launches a radio ad campaign featuring Judy Shepard that asks then-presidential candidate George W. Bush, "Will you support including sexual orientation in federal hate crimes law?" HRC works with state and local groups in Texas to organize a rally in Austin, where local activists chanted and carried signs that read, "Answer Judy's Question."

January 2001 | MTV airs a movie about the murder of Matthew Shepard and shuts down programming for 17 hours to run a list of the names of hundreds of victims of hate crimes. More than 50,000 people send e-mails or signed petitions urging Congress and the Bush administration to support the hate crimes bill.

March 2001 | Judy Shepard joins the HRC Board of Directors.

Spring 2001 | 107th Congress - The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act is introduces in the House and the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act is introduced in the Senate. The legislation would provide federal assistance to states and local jurisdictions to prosecute hate crimes.

Fall/Winter 2001 | Following the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, scores of hate-related incidents are directed at Muslims and people who appear to be of Middle Eastern descent. HRC works with allies to address these incidents and respond to the targeted communities. President Bush and federal law enforcement authorities speak out against these crimes and launch probes into more than 200 incidents across the country.

April/May 2003 | 108th Congress - The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act is reintroduced in the House and the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act is reintroduced in the Senate.

November 2004 | HRC counters ABC News’ inaccurate, sensationalized broadcast on "20/20" about Matthew Shepard's murder. In the program, which includes interviews with both men convicted of murdering Shepard, Aaron McKinney says his motivation for the murder was robbery, not hatred of gay people.

May 26, 2005 | 109th Congress - The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act is reintroduced in the House and the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act is reintroduced in the Senate.

"Matthew’s legacy is not about hate. Matthew’s legacy is about understanding, compassion, acceptance and love."– Judy Shepard, in an article she wrote for HRC's Equality magazine

2006 | Harris Interactive reports that 54 percent of LGBTQ people surveyed say they are concerned about being the victim of a hate crime.

Winter 2006 | Judy Shepard writes an article in HRC's Equality magazine reflecting on her son's legacy seven years after his death. "When I think about the last seven years, I feel a great sadness for the loss of Matt. But as I look to the future, I’m filled with hope," she writes. "Matthew’s legacy is not about hate. Matthew's legacy is about understanding, compassion, acceptance and love."

December 2006 | Judy Shepard joins the HRC Foundation Board.

2007 | A Gallup poll shows that 68 percent of Americans favor including sexual orientation and gender identity in federal hate crimes law. More than half of conservatives (57 percent) and Republicans (60 percent) back inclusive legislation. Support is strongest among self-identified liberals (82 percent), Democrats (75 percent), those affiliated with non-Christian religious faiths (74 percent) and Catholics (72 percent).

March/April 2007 | 110th Congress - The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act is introduced in the House, and the Matthew Shepard Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act is introduced in the Senate.

Spring 2007 | HRC produces a two-minute video in support of the passage of the Matthew Shepard Act. It features the stories of LGBTQ people who been injured or killed by hate violence: Evan Kittredge, Fred Martinez and Matthew Shepard. Using images from photojournalist Lynn Johnson with Cyndi Lauper’s song "All Through the Night," the video is a poignant call for people to get involved in the fight to pass hate crimes legislation.

May 3, 2007 | The House passes the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act by a floor vote of 237-180.

June 2007 | The Williams Institute reports that on average, 13 out of 100,000 gay, lesbian and bisexual people report hate violence every year. The 13 compares to 8 for African-Americans, 12 for Muslim-Americans and 15 for Jewish-Americans.

July 2007 | HRC produces a video that confronts the lies from the right wing about hate crimes legislation.

Spring 2007 | Peter D. Hart Research Associates releases the results of a poll showing that support for protections against hate violence is strong - even across partisan and racial lines. The results show that three in four voters support including sexual orientation in federal hate crimes laws, including 85 percent of Democrats, 74 percent of Independents, 64 percent of Republicans, 74 percent of African-Americans, 74 percent of Latinos and 74 percent of Caucasians.

Summer 2007 | Judy Shepard is featured on the front cover of HRC’s Equality magazine. By this date, she has spoken to more than 1 million youths about the damaging effects of hate and the importance of embracing diversity.

September 27, 2007 | The Senate invokes cloture on the hate crimes legislation by a vote of 60-39. A voice vote adds the Matthew Shepard Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act as an amendment to the Department of Defense Authorization Act. It is the first time that a transgender-inclusive piece of legislation passes both chambers of Congress.

Fall 2007 | President Bush issues a veto threat for the Defense authorization bill if hate crimes legislation is attached, ending consideration of the hate crimes bill in the 110th Congress.

December 6, 2007 | The hate crimes amendment is stripped from the Defense Department authorization legislation.

Spring 2008 | Sen. Edward Kennedy speaks at HRC's spring board meeting and reaffirms his commitment to passing inclusive federal hate crimes legislation.

November 18, 2008 | President-elect Barack Obama’s transition team releases its vision of support for the civil rights and LGBTQ community in a straightforward and timely plan. It details a plan to expand hate crimes statutes.

April 2009 | 111th Congress - The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act is introduced in the House, and the Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Prevention Act is introduced in the Senate.

April 6, 2009 | HRC launches http://www.fighthatenow.org/ to counter lies and distortions about federal hate crimes legislation. It provides supporters with the tools to directly contact their members of Congress to urge them to support the legislation.

April 21, 2009 | HRC releases a new video in conjunction with the campaign to pass federal hate crimes legislation. The video, "10 Years," features Judy Shepard. HRC also announces the #FightHateNow hashtag for Twitter users to contribute to and stay current on the status of the federal hate crimes bill.

April 27-29, 2009 | HRC holds a national call-in campaign for supporters to call their congressional representatives to urge quick passage of hate crimes legislation, the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009.

April 29, 2009 | The House passes the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act by a floor vote of 249-175.

May 20, 2009 | President Obama meets with Judy Shepard and reiterates his commitment to ensuring that the Senate finalize the hate crimes bill.

July 16, 2009 | Senate cloture motion on the hate crimes bill passes by a 63-28 vote. The bill is added to the Defense Department Authorization bill.

July 23, 2009 | The Senate passes the Defense Department Authorization bill, on which the Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Prevention Act is attached as an amendment. The bill goes to a conference committee to work out differences between the House and Senate versions of the legislation.

October 6, 2009 | The House fails to pass a motion, by a 178-234 vote, to instruct conferees to strip the hate crimes provision (now titled "Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act") from the Defense Dept. authorization bill conference report.

October 8, 2009 | The House passes the conference report by a 281-146 vote.

October 10, 2009 | President Obama reiterates his support for hate crimes legislation at the 13th annual HRC National Dinner. Dennis and Judy Shepard are honored with the first annual Edward M. Kennedy National Leadership Award.

October 22, 2009 | October 22, 2009 - The Senate votes 68-29 to pass the Defense Department authorization bill that includes a provision for inclusive federal hate crimes legislation. HRC launches Love Conquers Hate to celebrate the victory.

October 28, 2009 | President Barack Obama signs the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act into law (as a provision of the National Defense Authorization Act). Before signing the legislation, President Obama says, "I promised Judy Shepard when I saw her in the Oval Office that this day would come, and I'm glad that she and her husband Dennis could join us for this event."


Remembering and Honoring Matthew Shepard

HRC marks the tragic death of Matthew Shepard 21 years ago.

Post submitted by former Editorial Producer, Print and Digital Media Rokia Hassanein

HRC marks the tragic death of Matthew Shepard 21 years ago. As we mourn with the Shepard family, we recommit to our shared work combating hate and advocating for laws that protect LGBTQ people and mandate the accurate accounting of crimes against our community.

Shepard was attacked in Laramie, Wyoming, in an anti-gay hate crime on Oct. 6, 1998. He died from his injuries six days later. In his memory, HRC remains vigilant in its work against hate and to ensure that no one is targeted because of who they are or who they love.

Since his death, significant progress has been made to expand protections and support for victims of hate-motivated crime, including the 2009 Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. Just months before Shepard was murdered, Byrd, a Black man, was beaten by a group of white supremacists, tied to the back of a pickup truck and dragged three miles before dying. The Shepard and Byrd families worked tirelessly to pass the historic act.

At this year&rsquos HRC Foundation&rsquos Time to THRIVE conference, Judy and Dennis Shepard were presented with the Upstander Award for their steadfast commitment to advocacy after their son&rsquos horrific murder.

Even with the Hate Crimes Prevention Act, we still have a long way to go. Too many in the LGBTQ community, particularly transgender women of color, are targeted with violence. Just this year, 19 transgender people have been killed -- and most were victims of gun violence.

That&rsquos why during her remarks at HRC&rsquos Time to THRIVE conference, Judy Shepard emphasized the importance of protecting LGBTQ people nationwide.

&ldquoWe have a situation in this country right now that is temporary, but even in this temporary time, it becomes extra important because those who don&rsquot want us here are emboldened in their beliefs&hellip We need to work with the Human Rights Campaign, our own state legislators, our senators because state by state we can do this but we really need to do it federally,&rdquo she said.

In the states, it is imperative that local and state law enforcement expand trainings and infrastructure so they can better serve diverse communities -- and fully and accurately report on the extent of anti-LGBTQ violence. HRC has also called on state legislatures to pass inclusive non-discrimination protections and hate crimes laws, and the U.S. Senate to pass the Equality Act, which would provide explicit protection for LGBTQ people nationwide. Lawmakers must also act to ensure that training and data-collection around all hate crimes is mandatory, not voluntary.

We must combat the divisive rhetoric and dangerous policies that dehumanize large swaths of the public. The combination of transphobia, homophobia, misogyny, xenophobia and racism can inflame hate, often leading to deadly consequences. That&rsquos why the LGBTQ community needs lawmakers to act with the urgency this ongoing crisis demands.

HRC vows to continue honoring with action the memory of Shepard, Byrd and all those whose lives have been ended by hate.


Hate Crimes Are Designed To Strike Fear In The Broader Community

ADL's Oren Segal says hate crimes are designed to strike fear into the broader community, not just the individual attacked. And with social media, extremists can "pile on" after the fact, too.

The 1998 torture and murder of gay student Matthew Shepard in Laramie, Wyoming, was a turning point for gay rights in the United States, prompting outrage, sorrow and activism. His murderers were both given consecutive life sentences, although they weren’t charged with a hate crime.

There were no federal or state laws at the time equipped to deal with violence dealt solely because of a person’s sexuality or gender identity. The federal government wouldn’t move substantially to address the kind of hatred that took Shepard’s life for almost 20 years, as explained on Oxygen’s new special, “Uncovered: Killed By Hate.”

Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson were around 21-year-old Shepard’s age when they chatted him up the evening of Oct. 6 at the Fireside Lounge in Laramie. Matthew had just come from a meeting of his college LGBT association, where the group was planning awareness activities, according to the BBC.

Twenty-one years after beating Shepard into a coma and leaving him hanging in near-freezing temperatures from a wooden fence for 18 hours, McKinney and Henderson both remain in prison. They have both taken starkly different paths since they were sentenced, however.

McKinney was last serving his time in a Mississippi prison, as of late last year, and refusing interview requests, the Associated Press reported. However, McKinney did speak with actor Greg Pierotti in 2009, for a revival of “The Laramie Project,” a play centering around the fallout from Shepard’s murder, according to Today.com.

In a recorded 10-hour interview, which was adapted into a new act of the play, McKinney revealed that people should have little doubt Shepard’s murder was a hate crime — and that he feels no remorse.

“The night I did it, I did have hatred for homosexuals,” McKinney told Pierotti, according to the Denver Post. He also admitted that when he and Henderson zeroed in on that night at the Fireside Lounge, they did so because “he was obviously gay.”

“That played a part. His weakness. His frailty,” McKinney told Pierotti.

And, in 2018, Albany County Sheriff David O’Malley, who investigated Shepard’s murder 20 years before, shared a letter written to Henderson by McKinney while the two were both awaiting trial.

In the letter, McKinney tells Henderson that, at trial, he wants his friend to blame “everything” on him — even alleging that Henderson asked him to stop beating Shepard, and that he was “drunk and pointing a cannon” at his friend, according to the Coloradoan.

He also makes clear the homophobic element of the brutal murder — although he claims not to have known Shepard was gay when he and Henderson first approached him.

“After that, he mouthed off, so I hit him a few more times and his fag ass died,” McKinney wrote. “… At no time did we know he was gay until he tried to get on me.”

Stephen Belber, one of the playwrights of “The Laramie Project,” interviewed Henderson for the same production in 2009, and told the Denver Post the experience was different than Pierotti's with the apparently remorseless McKinney. Henderson has taken a victim empathy course, and even written a letter of apology to Judy Shepard, Matthew's mother, Belber said.

Henderson believes that the United States should revamp its federal hate crime laws to protect everyone, even nearly a decade after the passage of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, according to a 2018 Associated Press interview.

At a medium-security facility in Torrington, Wyoming, Henderson was working with hospice patients who were also serving jail time, and volunteering training shelter dogs, according to the report. Henderson reiterated that he was deeply sorry for Shepard’s murder.

“I think about Matthew every single day of my life,” Henderson said, according to the Associated Press. “I think about him and every single one of those days that I’ve had that he hasn’t had, his family hasn’t had, his friends haven’t had. I’m so, so ashamed I was ever part of this.”

For more on Shepard’s murder, as well as other brutal hate crimes and the current rise of extremist violence in the United States, watch “Uncovered: Killed By Hate,” airing Sunday at 7/6c uključeno Oxygen.


Public reaction and the aftermath

The anti-gay Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas, led by Fred Phelps, picketed Shepard's funeral as well as the trial of his assailants, ⎪] ⎫] displaying signs with slogans such as "Matt Shepard rots in Hell", "AIDS Kills Fags Dead" and "God Hates Fags". ⎬] When the Wyoming Supreme Court ruled that it was legal to display any sort of religious message on city property if it was legal for Casper's Ten Commandments display to remain, Phelps made attempts to gain city permits in Cheyenne and Casper to build a monument "of marble or granite 5 or Template:Convert in height on which will be a bronze plaque bearing Shepard's picture and the words: "MATTHEW SHEPARD, Entered Hell October 12, 1998, in Defiance of God's Warning: 'Thou shalt not lie with mankind as with womankind it is abomination.' Leviticus 18:22." ⎭] ⎮] ⎯] ⎰]

As a counterprotest during Henderson's trial, Romaine Patterson, a friend of Shepard's, organized a group of individuals who assembled in a circle around the Phelps group wearing white robes and gigantic wings (resembling angels) that blocked the protesters. Police had to create a human barrier between the two protest groups. ⎱] While the organization had no name in the initial demonstration, it has since been ascribed various titles, including 'Angels of Peace' and 'Angel Action'. ⎪] ⎫] The fence to which Shepard was tied and left to die became an impromptu shrine for visitors, who left notes, flowers, and other mementos. It has since been removed by the land owner.

In the years following Shepard's death, his mother Judy has become a well-known advocate for LGBT rights, particularly issues relating to gay youth. She is a prime force behind the Matthew Shepard Foundation, which supports diversity and tolerance in youth organizations.

People in the entertainment industry expressed their own outrage and responded in various ways to the attack:

    hosted Shepard's memorial services in Washington, D.C.
  • Three films were made about the Shepard's story: The Laramie Project (based on the play of the same name), The Matthew Shepard Story i Anatomy of a Hate Crime.The Laramie Project i The Matthew Shepard Story both won numerous awards. Shepard can also be seen in the documentary Dear Jesse in a brief interview, released to the Tampa International Gay and Lesbian Film Festival on October 10, 2 days before he died. ⎲]
    , widow of Dr. Martin Luther King, wrote to Judy Shepard expressing her sympathy and her belief that civil rights include gay and lesbian rights.
  • Radio DJ Howard Stern invited members of the Westboro Baptist Church on to The Howard Stern Show. The show's cast and callers proceeded to insult the church's members. The group has appeared on the show several times since each time Stern makes numerous comments denouncing the group and its cause. ⎳] and Bernie Taupin wrote a song about the death of Matthew Shepard entitled "American Triangle" which is included on John's 2001 album "Songs From the West Coast" has dedicated her song "Merman" (1999) to Matthew Shepard, a tender lullaby that can be found on the compilation album No Boundaries: A Benefit for the Kosovar Refugees.
  • Metal band Trivium has written a song on their latest album The Crusade which is about the story of Matthew Shepard and what happened that night.
  • Melissa Etheridge wrote a song about Matthew called 'Scarecrow' on her 'Breakdown' album
  • New Jersey band Thursday wrote a song called 'M. Shepard', featuring on their album, War All the Time.

The (lack of) media coverage of the Jesse Dirkhising and Gary Trzaska cases has been compared ⎴] ⎵] to Shepard's as an illustration of politically correct media bias.